History and Culture of Bangladesh

History and Culture of Bangladesh

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History and Culture of Bangladesh - Overview

------------ PAGE 1 ------------ H ISTORY A ND C ULTURE OF B ANGLADESH ------------ PAGE 2 ------------ H ISTORY O F B ANGLADESH „S Muslims In Bengal „S Arrival Of The Europeans „S The Mughal Period „S The Nawabs Of Bengal „S The British Rule In Bengal „S The Partition Of British India „S Creation Of Two States India And Pakistan „S Bengali Language Movement In East Pakistan „S Call For Independence „S The War Of Independence „S Timeline For Bangladesh After The Independence ( 1972- 1990) „S Political Parties Forming Government Since 1990 ------------ PAGE 3 ------------ M USLIMS I N B ENGAL ƒæ Muslims first arrived in Bangal in 12 th century ƒæ The Turks managed to capture the northern part of India ƒæ Mohammad Bakhtiar Khalji, Shahi and few other dynasties managed to extend Muslim empire until 14 th century ƒæ Art and literature flourished during the Muslim period ------------ PAGE 4 ------------ A RRIVING O F T HE E UROPEANS ƒæ From the 15 th century many Europeans arrived in Bangal : „« Netherlands „« Portugal „« France „« Britain ƒæ Trades and Economics flourished after their arrival ------------ PAGE 5 ------------ T HE M UGHAL P ERIOD ƒæ The Mughal conquered the Bengal in 1576 and it become under the control of Delhi ƒæ Bengal were allowed to practice their Culture and Literature ƒæ In 1612, Emperor Jahangir completed the conquest of Mughals after capturing Sylhet ƒæ Later in 1707, Bengal broke the Delhi Based empire after the death of Emperor Aurangzeb ------------ PAGE 6 ------------ T HE N AWABS O F B ENGAL ƒæ Murshid Quili Khan ended the nominal Mughal rule in 1717 when he declared independence of Bengal from The Mughal Empire ƒæ The capital was Murshidabad ƒæ Three islamic dynasties ruled Bengal in this period. They were: „« Nasir ( 1717- 1740) „« Afshar ( 1740- 1757) „« Najaf ( 1757- 1880) ------------ PAGE 7 ------------ T HE B RITISH R ULE I N BENGAL ƒæ During Aurangzeb reign, a local nawab sold three villages to the British ƒæ One of the villages was in Calcutta and it was the first foothold of the British ƒæ Calcutta was the focal point of British Economic Activities and soon they started to extend their activities beyond Calcutta ƒæ The managed to control Bengal for almost 200 years ------------ PAGE 8 ------------ P ARTITION O F B RITISH I NDIA ƒæ After the Second World War, the British were pressured to reduce the size of their empire ƒæ Lord Mountbatten and Mahatma Gandhi worked together to combine Hindus and Muslims and they were unsuccessful ƒæ Lord Mountbatten decided to partition British India ƒæ In July 1947, United Kingdom declared two different states India and Pakistan ƒæ Pakistan was the Muslim state and India Became the state of the Hindus ƒæ Pakistan was divided into East Pakistan ( Bengal) and West Pakistan ( Punjab) and was separated by 1600 km of Indian land ƒæ Urdu was spoken in West and Bengali was spoken in East Pakistan ------------ PAGE 9 ------------ B ENGALI L ANGUAGE M OVEMENT ƒæ East and West Pakistan were split along cultural, geographical and linguistics lines ƒæ In 1948, Government declared Urdu as the state language. Protest sparked among Bengali speaking East Pakistanis ƒæ In 1952, the protest reached its peak. Due to massive unrest the Government outlawed meetings and rallies ƒæ the students of Dhaka University and several political groups defied the laws and organized protest on 21 st February, 1952 ƒæ When the protest reached its climax, the police opened fire and killed some students. Massive civil unrest broke out due to those killings ƒæ Finally, after the years of conflict the central government granted official status of Bengali language in 1956 ------------ PAGE 10 ------------ „S Now, 21 st February is celebrated as “ International mother Language Day” all over the world and was granted by UNESCO in 2000 ------------ PAGE 11 ------------ C ALL F OR I NDEPENDENCE ƒæ As the capital was located in West Pakistan, the East Pakistan was unfairly ruled and very little was spent on development ƒæ Protests continued and martial law were imposed ƒæ Finally, after several years of political unrest the first election of Pakistan was called on 7 th December, 1970 ƒæ Awami League won al the seats in East Pakistan ƒæ West Pakistan opened talks East Pakistan over division of power between the central government. Talks proved to be unsuccessful and the President of Pakistan refused to let Awami League form government ƒæ On March 2 1971, a group of students, led by A S M Abdur Rob, student leader and VP of DUCSU ( Dhaka University Central Students Union) raised the new ( proposed) flag of Bangladesh under the direction of Shadhin Bangla Nucleus ƒæ On March 7 1971, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman , made his historic freedom speech, which called for the revolution for freedom and liberation ------------ PAGE 12 ------------ H ISTORIC S PEECH O F 7 TH M ARCH , 1971 ------------ PAGE 13 ------------ T HE W AR O F I NDEPENDENCE ƒæ On 25 th March, 1971, Pakistani Military launch „ Operation Searchlight. which killed thousands of unarmed innocent people ƒæ This led to the formation of Mukti Bahini which fought for independence. Many battles took place in diiferent parts of Bangladesh for over nine months and almost 3 million innocent people were killed ƒæ Two days before independence, Pakistani army captured many physicians, professors, writers and engineers in Dhaka, and murdered them, leaving the bodies in a mass grave ƒæ Finally in 16 th December, 1971, Pakistani army signed “ Instrument Of Surrender” and Bangladesh officially became the139 th country in the World ------------ PAGE 14 ------------ T IMELINE O F B ANGLADESH ( 1972- 1990) 1972 Sheikh Mujib Returns to Bangladesh and formed the government. The Constitution comes to effect 1973 The first general election of Bangladesh was held and Awami League managed to secure majority 1975 Sheikh Mujib was assassinated along with most of his family member on 15 th August 1975- 1981 Ziaur Rahman Ziaur Rahman formed BNP and won the election with is support from army. He was also assassinated in 1981 1982- 1990 Hussain Muhammad Ershad Army Chief of Staff Lt. Gen. HM Ershad declared martial law and ruled the country till his resignation in 1990 ------------ PAGE 15 ------------ P OLITICAL PARTIES F ORMING G OVERNMENTS 1991- 1996 BNP led by Khaleda Zia 1996- 2001 Awami League , led by Sheikh Hasina 2001- 2006 Four Party alliance led by BNP 2006- 2009 Caretaker Government 2009- Present Grand alliance, led mainly by Awami League and Jatiya Party ------------ PAGE 16 ------------ C ULTURE O F B ANGLADESH ƒæ Meaning Of Culture ƒæ Cultures Of Bangladesh „Ï Music, Dance and Drama „Ï Festivals and Celebrations „Ï Traditional Marriage Ceremonies „Ï Cuisine and Culinary Traditions ------------ PAGE 17 ------------ M EANING O F C ULTURE ƒæ The ideas, customs and social behavior of a particular people or society, is generally known as culture ƒæ A culture is a way of life of a group of people ƒæ E. B. Taylor defined culture as, “ The complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, moral, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society” ƒæ Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is, “ The way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs of a particular group of people at a particular time ------------ PAGE 18 ------------ C ULTURES O F B ANGLADESH ƒæ The culture of Bangladesh refers to the way of life of the people of Bangladesh ƒæ It has evolved over the centuries and encompasses the cultural diversity of several social groups of Bangladesh ƒæ The Bengal Renaissance of the 19 th and early 20 th centuries, noted Bengali writers, authors, scientists, researchers, thinkers, music composers, painters and film- makers have played significant role in the development of Bengali culture ƒæ It is manifested in various forms; including music, dance and drama; art and craft; languages and literature; philosophy and religions; festivals and celebrations; as well as in a distinct cuisine and culinary tradition ------------ PAGE 19 ------------ M USIC , D ANCE AND D RAMA ƒæ The music and dance styles in Bangladesh may be divided into three categories; they are classical, modern and folk ƒæ Lyricists like Lalon Shah, Hason Raja, Abbas Uddin along with great poets like Rabindranath and Nazrul, have enriched cultural heritage of Bangladesh ƒæ In recent times, the western influences have given rise to several quality rock bands, particularly in urban areas ƒæ Currently several western musical instruments like guitar, drums and the saxophone are heavily used, sometimes along with some of our traditional instruments such as bamboo flute, drums, a single stringed instrument named ektara , a four stringed instrument named dotara and a pair of metal bawls used for rhythm called mandira ------------ PAGE 20 ------------ F ESTIVALS A ND C ELEBRATIONS ƒæ Festivals and celebrations are integral parts of culture of Bangladesh ƒæ Prominent and widely celebrated festivals are: „Ï Pohela Baishakh „Ï Independence Day „Ï Eid- Ul Fitr „Ï Eid- Ul Adha „Ï Durga Puja „Ï Poush Parbon „Ï Nobanno „Ï Language movement day and other national holidays ------------ PAGE 21 ------------ P OHELA B AISHAKH ƒæ Pohela Baishakh is the first day of Bengali New Year. Now, it is celebrated on 14 th April of the Gregorian calender ƒæ The celebration of Pohela Baishakh started from Mughal Emperor Akbar. s reign ƒæ The main event of the day was to open a Halkhata of accounts. In villages, towns and cities, traders and shopkeepers closed their old account book and open a new one ƒæ Women particularly young girls dress up white saris with red borders and men clothed Punjabi, fatua with traditional art in Pohela Baishakh ƒæ They spend much time of the day visiting relatives, friends and neighbors and going to fair ------------ PAGE 22 ------------ ƒæ The most colorful New Year. s Day festival takes place in the Ramna Batamul, Dhaka ƒæ Large number of people of different ages gather early in the morning under the banyan tree where Chhayanat. s artists open the day with Rabindranath. s famous song, “ Esho hey Boishakh ” ƒæ People celebrate this day having breakfast with Panta- Illisha supplimented with different kinds of vortas ------------ PAGE 23 ------------ E ID U L - F ITR ƒæ Muslim festivals follow a lunar calendar ƒæ After a month long fasting in Ramadan, the Holy Festival comes with great joy ƒæ Eid Ul- Fitr is the most important religious festival for the majority Muslims community ƒæ City dwellers who have families or parents in villages, go to their country homes to meet them ƒæ On Eid day, the Eid prayer are held all over the country ƒæ The celebration of Eid Ul- Fitr has become a part of culture of Bangladesh ------------ PAGE 24 ------------ E ID U L - A DHA ƒæ The celebrations of Eid Ul- Adha is similar to Eid Ul- Fitr in many ways. The only big difference is the Qurbani or the sacrifice of domestic animals in Eid day ƒæ Numerous temporary marketplaces of different sizes called Hat operate in the big cities for sales of Qurbani animals ƒæ In the morning of the Eid day, immediately after the prayer, affluent people thank God for the animal, and then sacrifice it ƒæ After the Qurbani, a large portion of the meat is given to the poor people ------------ PAGE 25 ------------ D URGA P UJA ƒæ Durga Puja is the biggest celebraton of Hindu community of Bangladesh ƒæ On the occasion, the Debi Durga statues astride a lion, with her ten hands holding ten different weapons, are placed in not only regular Hindu temple but also enormous temporary stages ƒæ Hindu community shop new dresses on the occasion ƒæ It is now a day. s one of the most public gathering occasion ƒæ Puja stage is visited not only by Hindu community, but also all classes of people of Bangladesh ------------ PAGE 26 ------------ N OBANNO ƒæ In the rural area, the farmers. community starts harvesting and with joy they celebrate Nobannno ( Harvesting Month) ƒæ They made Payesh ( sweet dish made with rice and boiled milk), various kind of traditional rice cakes to celebrate Nobanno ------------ PAGE 27 ------------ P OUSH P ARBON ƒæ In this season, people celebrate Poush Parbon with date juice and various kinds of Pithas ƒæ Kuli pitha, khajer pitha, chitai pitha and various date juice based pitha are remarkable ƒæ Grihasto ( farmer) invites their married daughter and Son- In- Law on the occasion ------------ PAGE 28 ------------ T RADITIONAL M ARRIAGE C EREMONY I N B ANGLADESH ƒæ Settle marriage is popular in Bangladesh. ƒæ Once the guardians ( only) of bride and grooms settled such relation and the bride and grooms opinions had minor priority. ƒæ Now a day the situations has been improved and give the priority of bride and bride grooms likes ƒæ They invite all friends, neighbors and relatives as much as possible on the wedding festival ƒæ Bangladeshi wedding ceremony has its own tradition and customs for days long ------------ PAGE 29 ------------ C UISINE A ND C ULINARY T RADITION O F B ANGLADESH ƒæ The region is famous for its illusive culinary tradition and delicious food, dessert and snacks ƒæ Plain rice is the staple food and it is served with a variety of vegetables either fried or curry or even bharta, egg, thick lentill soup, fish or meat ƒæ As dessert Misti Dhohi, flat chana, Sandesh, Rasgolla, Ras Malai, Kalojam, Pudding etc are unique and kheer is also a great tasty milk based dessert ƒæ Traditional drinks are tea, Lassi, Sugarcane Juice, Lime and Date Juice, Green coconut water are mentionable ------------ PAGE 30 ------------ „S Thank You
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