The Political History of Bangladesh

The Political History of Bangladesh

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The Political History of Bangladesh - Overview

------------ PAGE 1 ------------ ------------ PAGE 2 ------------ Objectives of this Class ƒá Understand the historical and political development of Bengal. ƒá Realize the political dynamics of Bengal in accordance with historical ground. ƒá Know the ruling structure of Bengal as well as peoples rebellion against the oppressor. ƒá Explore and examine the outcomes of the dynastic rule. ------------ PAGE 3 ------------ Empire of Alexander the Great Pre Ancient History of Bengal The Stone Age lasted roughly 3.4 million years, and ended between 8700 BCE and 2000 BCE with the advent of metalworking. Paleolithic: First Stage of Stone Age. Mesolithic: The period starting from 10,000 years ago, to around 6,000 years ago was characterized by rising sea levels and find new food sources. Neolithic: The Neolithic, New Stone Age, was approximately characterized by the adoption of agriculture, the shift from food gathering to food producing. Invent of Human Technology. ------------ PAGE 4 ------------ Ancient History : Development Trend and Dynamics Time Frame: 400 BC to 1204 AD References: 1. Majumdar, R, C. ( 1943). History of Bengal. Dhaka. . Rahim et al. ( 2001). Bangladesher Itihash. Nawroze Kitabistan. Dhaka. Maurya People, Gupta Empire, Gauda Kingdom , Pala Empire and Sena Dynasty were the main dynasty of ancient Bengal. They ruled the bengal more than 1500 years. ƒæ Shashanka was the first Independent ruler in Bengal. ƒæ Pala dynasty was the first independent Buddhist dynasty of Bengal. Gopala was the first ruler. He came to power in 750 in Gaur by a democratic election. ƒæ The Buddhist Pala dynasty lasted for four centuries ( 750- 1159 AD) ƒæ The Palas were followed by the Sena dynasty who brought Bengal under one ruler during the 12th century. ƒæ Ballal Sena introduced caste system in Bengal and made Nabadwip the capital. ------------ PAGE 5 ------------ Conquest of Bakhtiyar Khilji ------------ PAGE 6 ------------ Mediaeval History of Bengal: Political Dynamics The Middle age in Bengal coincided with the Muslim rule. About 550 years of Muslim rule, Bengal was effectively ruled by Delhi- based all India empires for only about two hundred years. For about 350 years Bengal remained virtually independent. ƒá The Muslim rule in Bengal is usually divided into three phases. - The first phase which lasted from 1204 to 1342 witnessed the consolidation of Muslim rule in Bengal. It was characterized by extreme political instability. - The second phase which extended the period 1342 to 1575 saw the emergence of independent local dynasties such as the Ilyas Shahi dynasty, dynasty of King Ganesha and Husain Shahi dynasty. - The third phase which lasted from 1575 to 1757 witnessed the emergence of a centralized administration in Bengal within the framework of the Mughal empire. References: 1. Karim, Dr. Abdul. Banglar Itihas. Dhaka 2. Rahim et al. ( 2001). Bangladesher Itihash. Nawroze Kitabistan. Dhaka. ------------ PAGE 7 ------------ Battle Of Palashi There had Tri- parties conspiracy: Family persons, High officials of Nawab’s , East India company against Nawab. The Battle of Palashi started at about 8 in the morning on 23 June 1757. Nawab's army under Mir Mardan, Mohanlal, Khwaja Abdul Hadi gave a brave fight while Mir Jafar, Yar Latif and Ray Durlabh merely stood by. After Mir Mardan's death, Sirajuddaula called Mir Jafar and implored him to save his life. Mir Jafar advised the Nawab to suspend action for the day. With the nawab's commanders turning back, the British made a onslaught and victorious Clive immediately proceeded towards Murshidabad. Finally The English won the victory at Palashi. ------------ PAGE 8 ------------ From June 23, 1757 the East India Company of England became the virtual ruler of Bengal and From 1757 they installed their own Nawab. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 replaced rule by the Company with the direct control of Bengal by the British Crown. In the British Period the significant events were: Partition of Bengal: 16 October 1905: It separated the largely Muslim eastern areas from the largely Hindu western areas By Lord Curzon in 16 October 1905. Due to political protests, the two parts of Bengal were reunited in 1911. Formation of Muslim League: 1906: The All- India Muslim League formed in December 1906 in Dhaka, attended by 3,000 delegates. Its strong advocacy was for the establishment of separate Muslim- majority nation- states. In addition there had lead a lot of movements against British Rule such as Swadeshi Movement in 1905 to 1917, Khilafat movement in 1919 to1924, Non- cooperation movement in 1920 and Quit India Movement in1942 under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. References : 1. Ram Gopal, Indian Muslims: A political Study 2. Khan Raisuddin K M, Bangladesh: Itihash Porikroma ( 2009), Dhaka. Modern History: British Colonial Rule Time Frame: 1757- 1947 ------------ PAGE 9 ------------ ƒá Military crackdown by the Pakistan army began during the early hours of March 26, 1971. ƒá On 26 March 1971, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman declared that, " This may be my last message. From today Bangladesh is independent. I call upon the people of Bangladesh wherever you might be and with whatever you have to resist the of occupation to the last. Your fight must go on untill the last soldiers of pakistan occupation army is expelled from the soild of Bangladesh and final victory is achieved“ ƒá On 27 March 1971, Ziaur Rahman declared that , ‘ I, Major Ziaur Rahman, on behalf of our great leader Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, do hereby declare that the independent PeoplesRepublic of Bangladesh has been established. Reference: 1. Maniruzzaman, Talukdar , ` The Bangladesh Revolution and its Aftermath’, ( UPL). Dhaka The Birth of Bangladesh ------------ PAGE 10 ------------ 1971 to 1974 : Democratic Regime 1975 to 1975 : One Party Rule 1975 to 1990 : Military Regime 1991 to 2006 : Democratic Regime 2006 to 2008 : Non Democratic Regime 2009 to 2013 : Democratic Regime 2014 to till : Democratic Regime Political Regime: 1971 to Till ------------ PAGE 11 ------------ Key Political Person of Bangladesh ? ? ------------ PAGE 12 ------------ Key Political Person of Bangladesh Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani ( 12 December 1880 – 17 November 1976) was a popular Islamic scholar and political leader in British India. Political Life: In 1917, Bhashani was inducted into active politics and joined the Nationalist party led by Desbandhu Chittaranjan Das. Inspired by Mohammed Ali, he joined the Indian National Congress in 1919. In 1920 he was arrested and imprisoned. He joined the Muslim League in 1930. On 23 July 1949, he founded East Pakistan Awami Muslim League. Bhasani was elected its president. Contribution: On 31 January 1952 he formed the " All Party Language movement Committee¯ . The United Front was formed under his leadership. He Played role in 1947 Sylhet Referendum, through which Sylhet became part of the Pakistan. During Kagmaree Conference Bhashani said " good bye¯ to the West Pakistan. He played role in the 1969 movement. In Jan 1972, he demanded the withdrawal of Indian troops. In May 1976 he led a Long March demanding demolition of the Farakka Barrage. ------------ PAGE 13 ------------ Key Political Person of Bangladesh Abul Kasem Fazlul Huq Abul Kasem Fazlul Huq ( 26 Octr 1873 — 27 April 1962) popular with the title Sher- e- Bangla, was the first elected Prime Minister of Bengal under British rule. Political Life: After the Partition of Bengal Huq emerged as a leader of the Muslim community. He was involved in the formation of the All- India Muslim League on 1906. He served as General Secretary of the Indian National Congress; and was a working committee member of the All India Muslim League. In 1929, he founded the Krishak Praja Party ( KPP). Contribution: He was first elected Muslim mayor of Calcutta. He presented Lahore Resolution in 1940 that established homeland for Muslims; that ultimately resulted the nation of Pakistan as well as Bangladesh. He became Chief Minister of Bengal in 1952. He helped to establish many educational institutions for Muslims. He was involved in the language movement and was injured in police action also. ------------ PAGE 14 ------------ Key Political Person of Bangladesh . Continued) Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy ( 8 Sep 1892- 5 Dec 1963) was a Bengali politician and statesman. He was was born in Midnapore, West Bengal. Political Life: He joined the Swaraj Party of Chittaranjan Das in 1921. As a member of the All- India Muslim League, he assumed the premiership of Bengal in the mid- 1940s. In 1952, he joined the Awami League. Contribution: He served as the last Prime Minister of Bengal during the British Raj. Along with A. K. Fazlul Huq and Maulana Bhashani, he led the United Front alliance in the 1954 East Bengal elections. In 1956, Suhrawardy won the slot of Prime minister and was hastily appointed as fifth Prime Minister by President Iskander Mirza. He died in 1963 in Beirut, Lebanon after suffering a massive heart attack. ------------ PAGE 15 ------------ Key Political Person of Bangladesh . Continued) Sheikh Mujibur Rahman ( 17 March 1920- 15 Aug 1975) was the founding leader of Bangladesh. He is popularly referred to as Sheikh Mujib with the honorary title of Bangabandhu. His daughter Sheikh Hasina is the current Prime Minister of Bangladesh. Political Life: In the formation of the Awami Muslim League, he was elected joint secretary. In 1953, he was made the party's general secretary. Following Suhrawardy's death in 1963, Mujib came to head of the Awami League. Contribution: Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was the first President of Bangladesh during the Bangladesh Liberation War, and later became Prime Minister. In 1966, He proclaimed a 6- point plan titled Charter of Survival. With charismatic and forceful oratory, He inspired millions across East Pakistan to engage in the struggle for self- determination and independence. On 15 August 1975, a group of army officers killed Sheikh Mujib and his family. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman ------------ PAGE 16 ------------ Key Political Person of Bangladesh . Continued) Tajuddin Ahmad ( July 23, 1925 - Nov 3, 1975) was a Bangladeshi statesman and freedom fighter. He is regarded as one of the most influential figures in the birth of Bangladesh. Political Life: He was the General Secretary of the Awami League in the late 1960s and early 1970s. He organized protests and other activities during the Language Movement of 1952 also. He was arrested by police and imprisoned for several months. Contribution: He coordinated the League’s election campaign in 1970, in which the League gained a historic parliamentary majority to form government. He served as the first Prime Minister of Bangladesh. Along with Bengali political and military leaders, he formed the first Government of Bangladesh in Meherpur in April 1971. Along with four other top leaders, he was executed by members of the military in Dhaka Central Jail on 4 November 1975. Tajuddin Ahmad ------------ PAGE 17 ------------ Key Political Person of Bangladesh . Continued) Ziaur Rahman Ziaur Rahman ( 20 January 1936 - 30 May 1981) was an army general who served as the 4th President of Bangladesh from 21 April 1977 until his assassination. Political Life and Contribution: He had broadcasted the declaration of independence. He also led the Z Force brigade. After the war, Zia became the deputy chief of the Bangladesh Army. He rose to power after the country's first military coup on 15 August 1975, in which Sheikh Mujib was killed. A series of counter- coups resulted in Zia gaining de facto power as head of the army. He took over the presidency in 1977. He formed Bangladesh Nationalist Party in 1978. He Re- introduced multi- party politics and announced a " 19- point program" of economic emancipation. He began reorienting Bangladesh's foreign policy with US, Europe, Middle East, Saudi Arabia and China. He played role in the formation of SAARC. In the early hours of 30 May at Ctg Circuit House, he was assassinated by a group of army officers. ------------ PAGE 18 ------------ 1. Unfinished Memories, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, UPL, 2012. 2. Banglapeadia, National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. Volume- 1 to 10, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 2003. 3. History of Bangladesh ( 1704- 1947), Edited by Sirajul Islam, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 1992. 4. Bangladesher Itihash, Dr. M. Abdur Rahim, Dr. Abdul Momin Chowdhury, Dr. A. B. M. Mahmood and Dr. Sirajul Islam, Nawroze Kitabistan, Dhaka- 1000. 5. The Bangladesh Revolution and its Aftermath, Maniruzzaman, Talukdar, ( UPL), Dhaka. References
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