The political History of bangladesh

The political History of bangladesh

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The political History of bangladesh - Overview

------------ PAGE 1 ------------ Daffodil International University ------------ PAGE 2 ------------ ƒá Understand the historical and political development of Bengal. ƒá Realize the political dynamics of Bengal in accordance with historical ground. ƒá Know the ruling structure of Bengal as well as peoples rebellion against the oppressor. ƒá Explore and examine the outcomes of the dynastic rule. ------------ PAGE 3 ------------ ƒá Stone Age: 7000 – 3000 BC The stone age is a broad Prehistoric which means the spans of time before recorded history or the invention of writing systems. It also refers ‘ beginning of the universe’ / ‘ life appeared on earth’ / ‘ since human like beings appeared. This age lasted 3.4 million years, and ended 4500 BC and 2000 BC with the advent of metalworking. ƒá Bronze Age: 3000- 1300 BC ƒá Iron Age: 1200- 26 BC ƒá Magadha Empire: Western Bangladesh, as part of Magadha, became part of the Indo- Aryan civilization by the 700 BC. ƒá Mahasthangarh: In 700 BC Urban civilization emerges at Mahasthangarh, Now at Bogra district. ------------ PAGE 4 ------------ ƒæ Paleolithic : is the period of human history distinguished by the development of the most primitive stone tools; human groups together in small societies such as bands, and existed by gathering plants and fishing, hunting wild animals. ƒæ Mesolithic : is an archaeological concept used to refer to specific groups of archaeological cultures/ refer to different time spans in different parts of Eurasia/ late developments of hunter- gather traditions. ƒæ Neolithic : New Stone age, was a period in the development of human technology/ some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world/ cultivated crop and mark the invention of the technology of farming/ singe houses. ------------ PAGE 5 ------------ houses. ------------ PAGE 6 ------------ ƒæ Maurya Dynasty ( 321 BC – 185 BC) Foremost Rulers: Chandragupta Maurya, Ashoka Vardhana ƒæ Gupta Empire ( 240 AD – 550 AD ) Foremost Rulers: Sri- Gupta, Chandra Gupta- 1, Samudra Gupta ƒæ Gauda / Gaur Kingdom ( 590 AD – 637 AD) Foremost Ruler: Shashanka ƒæ Pala Empire ( 756 AD- 1161 AD) Foremost Rulers: Gopala, Dharmapala, Devapala, Mahipala- 1, Rampala ƒæ Sena Dynasty: ( 1070 AD- 1229 AD) Foremost Ruler: Hemantasen, Vijayasen, Ballalsen, Lakshmansen References: 1. Majumdar, R, C. ( 1943). History of Bengal. Dhaka. 2. Rahim et al. ( 2001). Bangladesher Itihash. Nawroze Kitabistan. Dhaka. ------------ PAGE 7 ------------ ƒæ The Kharga Dynasty ( Second half of 7 th century) Area: Bara kamta or Karmanta Vasaka, Triura and Noakhali Foremost Rulers: Khargauddam, Deva Kharga ƒæ The Deva Dynasty ( Beginning of 8 th Century) Area: Bara kamta or Karmanta Vasaka, Tripura and Noakhali Foremost Rulers: Sri- Shanti, Sri- Ananda and Sri- Bhava ƒæ The Kanti Deva Dynasty ( 9 th Century) Area: Harikela, Sylhet , Foremost Ruler: Kanti Deva ƒæ The Chandra Dynasty ( End of the 9 th Century - 1045 AD) Foremost Rulers: Troilakya, Sri- Chandra, Kalyan chandra , Area: Banga and Samatata ƒæ The Varmaraja Dynasty: ( At the end of 11 th Century – in the middle of 12 th Century) Foremost Ruler: Jatavarma, Harivarma , Area: Banga, Samatata and Nagabhumi References: 1. Majumdar, R, C. ( 1943). History of Bengal. Dhaka. 2. Rahim et al. ( 2001). Bangladesher Itihash. Nawroze Kitabistan. Dhaka. ------------ PAGE 8 ------------ ƒæ Shashanka was the first Independent ruler in Bengal . ƒæ Pala dynasty was the first independent Buddhist dynasty of Bengal. Gopala was the first ruler. He came to power in 750 in Gaur by a democratic election. ƒæ The Buddhist Pala dynasty lasted for four centuries ( 750- 1159 AD) ƒæ The Palas were followed by the Sena dynasty who brought Bengal under one ruler during the 12th century . ƒæ Ballal Sena introduced caste system in Bengal and made Nabadwip the capital. Reference: 1. Rahim et al. ( 2001). Bangladesher Itihash. Nawroze Kitabistan. Dhaka. ------------ PAGE 9 ------------ Dhaka. ------------ PAGE 10 ------------ ƒæ Khilji dynasty: ( 1204- 1227) Foremost Ruler: Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji ƒæ Mamluk Sultanate: ( 1227 – 1281) Foremost Ruler: Nasiruddin Mahmud ƒæ Tugluk Sultanate: Independent Sultans of Bengal ( 1338- 1352) Foremost Rulers: Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah, Ilyas Shah ƒæ Ilyas Shahi dynasty: ( 1352- 1414) Foremost Rulers: Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah, Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah ƒæ Ganesha dynasty: Began with Raja Ganesha in 1414. ƒæ Hussain Shahi dynasty: ( 1494- 1538) Foremost Rulers: Alauddin Hussain Shah ƒæ Mughal Subahdars: ( 1565 – 1717) Foremost Rulers: Munim Khan, Mir Jumla, Shaista Khan Murshid Quli Khan ƒæ Nawabs of Bengal: ( 1717- 1830) Foremost Rulers: Jafar Khan, Nawab Siraj- Ud Daulah, Mansur Ali Khan ( 1830) ------------ PAGE 11 ------------ ƒá The Middle age in Bengal coincided with the Muslim rule . ƒá About 550 years of Muslim rule, Bengal was effectively ruled by Delhi- based all India empires for only about two hundred years . For about 350 years Bengal remained virtually independent. ƒá The Muslim rule in Bengal is usually divided into three phases. - The first phase which lasted from 1204 to 1342 witnessed the consolidation of Muslim rule in Bengal. It was characterized by extreme political instability. - The second phase which extended the period 1342 to 1575 saw the emergence of independent local dynasties such as the Ilyas Shahi dynasty, dynasty of King Ganesha and Husain Shahi dynasty. - The third phase which lasted from 1575 to 1757 witnessed the emergence of a centralized administration in Bengal within the framework of the Mughal empire. References : 1. Karim, Dr. Abdul. Banglar Itihas. Dhaka 2. Rahim et al. ( 2001). Bangladesher Itihash. Nawroze Kitabistan. Dhaka. ------------ PAGE 12 ------------ Dhaka. ------------ PAGE 13 ------------ ƒá The Conspiracy Against Nawab Siraj- Ud- Daula: ƒæ Tri- parties conspiracy: Family persons, High officials of Nawab’s , East India company ƒæ 23 rd April’ 1757 Calcatta Parishad decided to throw out Nawab. ƒá The Battle: ƒæ June 5, 1757: An agreement between Watts and Mir Jafar. O n 22 June the British army under Lord Clive set out for Palashi. In the meantime the nawab had started from Murshidabad and encamped at Palashi to oppose the enemy. ƒæ The war started at about 8 in the morning on 23 June 1757. ƒæ Nawab's army under Mir Mardan, Mohanlal, Khwaja Abdul Hadi gave a brave fight while Mir Jafar, Yar Latif and Ray Durlabh merely stood by. ƒæ After Mir Mardan's death, Sirajuddaula called Mir Jafar and implored him to save his life. Mir Jafar advised the nawab to suspend action for the day. ƒæ With the nawab's commanders turning back, the British made a onslaught and The battle was over by 5 in the afternoon and victorious Clive immediately proceeded towards Murshidabad. Finally The English won the victory at Palashi. ------------ PAGE 14 ------------ ƒá From June 23, 1757 the East India Company of England became the virtual ruler of Bengal and From 1757 they installed their own Nawab. ƒá The Indian Rebellion of 1857 replaced rule by the Company with the direct control of Bengal by the British Crown. Revolt against British Rule ƒæ Fakir Sannyasi Movement: ( 1760- 1800) Leadership: Fakir Majnu Shah, Vabani Pathak, Pargal Shah ƒæ Rangpur Farmers Movement: 1783, Leadership: Nur Uddin ƒæ Balaki Shah Revolt: 1791- 1792 in Bakerganj ƒæ Faraiji Movement: 1820- 1862, I t was widely received in the districts of Dhaka, Faridpur, Barisal, Mymensingh and Comilla Leadership: Haji Shariatullah, Dudu Miyan ƒæ Titumir’s Rebellion in west Bengal in 1831 Modern History: British Colonial Rule Time Frame: 1757- 1947 ------------ PAGE 15 ------------ Titumir’s Rebellion Revolt against British Rule . Continued) ƒæ The rebellion of 1857: A large- scale rebellion in northern and central India. It began as a mutiny of sepoys of the East India Company's army. Leadership: Bahadur Shah Zafar, Bakht Khan, Mangal Pandey, Nana Sahib ƒæ Indigo revolt : 1859- 1860 The Indigo revolt ( or Nilbidroha) was a peasant movement and subsequent uprising of indigo farmers against the indigo planters that arose in Bengal. ------------ PAGE 16 ------------ Reformation Movement ƒæ Role of Raja Ram Mohan Rai: Indian Renaissance, Religious Reformation ƒæ Role of Nawab Abdul Latif: Emphasize on education and Established the Mohammedan Literary Society of Calcutta. ƒæ Role of Syed Ameer Ali: Muslim Renaissance ƒæ Syed Ahmad Khan : Literary movement at The Aligarh Muslim University Partition of Bengal: 16 October 1905 It separated the largely Muslim eastern areas from the largely Hindu western areas. Due to political protests, the two parts of Bengal were reunited in 1911. Formation of Muslim League: 1906 The All- India Muslim League formed in December 1906 in Dhaka, attended by 3,000 delegates. Its strong advocacy was for the establishment of separate Muslim- majority nation- states. British Colonial Rule: . Continued) ------------ PAGE 17 ------------ Movements against British Rule ƒæ Swadeshi Movement : 1905 to 1917 Began with and because of the partition of Bengal in 1905. ƒæ The Khilafat movement: ( 1919- 1924) A pan- Islamic political protest campaign by Muslims in British. Leadership: Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Maulana Muhammad Ali ƒæ Non- cooperation movement: 1920 After the Jallianwala Bagh incident, Gandhi started the non- cooperation movement. It was supported by the Indian National Congress also. ƒæ The Quit India Movement: 1942 It was a civil disobedience movement by Gandhi. References: 1. Ram Gopal, Indian Muslims: A political Study 2. Khan Raisuddin K M, Bangladesh: Itihash Porikroma ( 2009), Dhaka. British Colonial Rule: . Continued) ------------ PAGE 18 ------------ ƒá The Lahore Resolution of 1940 demanded that Muslims are numerically in a majority should be grouped to constitute " Independent States“ . ƒá The power transferred to Pakistan and India on 14 – 15 August 1947 according to " 3 June Plan “ . ƒá Pakistan, was in fact " a double country ", the two wings were not only separated from each other, they were also culturally, economically and socially different. ƒá State Language Movement in 1952: foundation of Bengali Nationalism. ƒá Six Point Program in 1966: It is compared to Magnacarta. ƒá On 26 March 1971, Bangladesh stared journey as a independent country. Reference: 1. Khan Raisuddin K M, Bangladesh: Itihash Porikroma, Dhaka. Modern History: Pakistan Period Time Frame: 1947- 1971 ------------ PAGE 19 ------------ ƒá Military crackdown by the Pakistan army began during the early hours of March 26, 1971. ƒá On 26 March 1971, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman declared that, ‘ Today Bangladesh is a sovereign and independent country. On Thursday night West Pakistani armed forces suddenly attacked the police barracks at Razarbagh and the EPR Headquarters at Pilkhana in Dhaka …… .... May Allah aid us in our fight for freedom. Joy Bangla. ’ ƒá On 27 March 1971, Ziaur Rahman declared that , ‘ I, Major Ziaur Rahman, on behalf of our great leader Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, do hereby declare that the independent Peoples Republic of Bangladesh has been established. …… Victory is ours by the Grace of Allah. Joy Bangla. ƒá On 16 December 1971, Our long cherished victory has acquired. Reference: 1. Maniruzzaman, Talukdar , ` The Bangladesh Revolution and its Aftermath’, ( UPL). Dhaka The Birth of Bangladesh ------------ PAGE 20 ------------ Surrender Of Pakistan Army ------------ PAGE 21 ------------ 1971 to 1974 : Democratic Regime 1975 to 1975 : One Party Rule 1975 to 1990 : Military Regime 1991 to 2006 : Democratic Regime 2006 to 2008 : Non Democratic Regime 2009 to 2013 : Democratic Regime 2014 to till : Democratic Regime Political Regime: 1971 to Till ------------ PAGE 22 ------------ Key Political Person of Bangladesh o Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani was born in S irajganj i n 1880 . On 31 January 1952 he formed the " All Party Language movement Committee“ . The United Front was formed under his leadership. He was the founder President of the Awami Muslim League . He participated in the Khilafat Movement as well. o He gained popularity among peasants and the higher status emerging leadership of Bengali Muslims. o He Played role in 1947 Sylhet Referendum, through which Sylhet chose to become part of the Pakistan. During Kagmaree Conference Bhashani said " good bye“ to the West Pakistan. He played role in the 1969 movement . In January 1972, he first demanded the immediate withdrawal of Indian troops . In May 1976 he led a Long March demanding demolition of the Farakka Barrage. o Abul Kasem Fazlul Huq popular with the title Sher- e- Bangla Bengal, was the first elected Prime Minister of Benga l under British rule. He served as General Secretary of the Indian National Congress; and was a working committee member of the All India Muslim League. o In 1929, he founded the Krishak Praja Party ( KPP ). He became Chief Minister of Bengal in 1952. o He presented Lahore Resolution in 1940 that established homeland for Muslims; that ultimately resulted the nation of Pakistan as well as Bangladesh. 12 December 1880 17 November 1976 26 October 1873 27 April 1962 ------------ PAGE 23 ------------ Key Political Person of Bangladesh . Continued) 17 March 1920 15 August 1975 o Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was the first President of Bangladesh during the Bangladesh Liberation War, and later became Prime Minister. In the formation of the Awami Muslim League, he was elected joint secretary. Following Suhrawardy's death in 1963, Mujib came to head of the Awami League. o With charismatic and forceful oratory , He inspired millions across East Pakistan to engage in the struggle for self- determination and independence. o In 1966, He proclaimed a 6- point plan titled Charter of Survival. o On 15 August 1975, a group of army officers killed Sheikh Mujib and his family. 8 September 1892 5 December 1963 o Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy was born in Midnapore, West Bengal. He served as the Prime Minister of Bengal in British India . He joined the Swaraj Party of Chittaranjan Das in 1921. As a member of the All- India Muslim League, he assumed the premiership of Bengal in the mid- 1940s. In 1952, he joined the Awami League . o Along with A. K. Fazlul Huq and Maulana Bhashani, he led the United Front alliance in the 1954 East Bengal elections. o In 1956, Suhrawardy won the slot of Prime minister and was hastily appointed as fifth Prime Minister by President Iskander Mirza . He died in 1963 in Beirut , Lebanon after suffering a massive heart attack. ------------ PAGE 24 ------------ Key Political Person of Bangladesh . Continued) July 23, 1925 November 3, 1975 o Tajuddin Ahmad served as the first Prime Minister of Bangladesh. Along with Bengali political and military leaders, he formed the first Government of Bangladesh in Meherpur in April 1971. o He organized protests and other activities during the Language Movement of 1952 also. He was arrested by police and imprisoned for several months. o He became the general secretary of the Awami League in the late 1960s and early 1970s. He coordinated the League’s election campaign in 1970 , in which the League gained a historic parliamentary majority to form government. o Along with four other top League leaders, he was executed by members of the military in Dhaka Central Jail on 4 November 1975 . 19 January 1936 30 May 1981 o Ziaur Rahman was a military officer who served as the 7th President of Bangladesh. He was the commander of the Sector 11 , during the war of independence. On 30 June 1971 he was appointed the commander of the Z Force . o On 7 November 1975, a mutiny staged by the Jatiyo Samajtantrik Dal with a group of army persons freed by Ziaur Rahman and appointed him as army chief. o He formed Bangladesh Nationalist Party in 1978, R e- introduced multi- party politics And announced a " 19- point programme" of economic emancipation. o Zia began reorienting Bangladesh's foreign policy with United States, Western Europe, Africa, Middle East, Saudi Arabia and China. ------------ PAGE 25 ------------ 1. Unfinished Memories, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, UPL, 2012. 2. Bangladesh Revised: A Comprehensive Study of an Asian Nation, Muhamad Ruhul Amin, OSDER Publications, 2010. 3. Banglapeadia, National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. Volume- 1 to 10, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 2003. 4. History of Bangladesh ( 1704- 1947), Edited by Sirajul Islam, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 1992. 5. Bangladesh: Emergence of a Nation, Muhith, A. M. A. Bangladesh Books International, 1978. 6. Bangladesher Itihash, Dr. M. Abdur Rahim, Dr. Abdul Momin Chowdhury, Dr. A. B. M. Mahmood and Dr. Sirajul Islam, Nawroze Kitabistan, Dhaka- 1000. 7. History of Bengal, Majumdar, R, C. ( 1943), Dhaka. 8. The Bangladesh Revolution and its Aftermath, Maniruzzaman, Talukdar, ( UPL), Dhaka. 9. Bangladesh: Itihash Porikroma, Khan Raisuddin K. M, ( 2009), Dhaka. References ------------ PAGE 26 ------------ ƒá Write short note on ‘ pre - ancient history’ of Bengal. ƒá Discuss the development trend of mediaeval history f Bengal. ƒá What were the revolt against British colonial rule? Discuss a brief. ƒá Write a short brief on Independent kingdoms of south east Bengal in ancient period. ƒá Write down the political dynamics of Mediaeval history f Bengal. ƒá Describe the development trend of ancient history of Bengal. ƒá Write a short brief on key political persons of Bangladesh. 26 ------------ PAGE 27 ------------ Thank You All.
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