Origin of the name of bangladesh

Origin of the name of bangladesh

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Origin of the name of bangladesh - Overview

------------ PAGE 1 ------------ Daffodil International University ( DIU) 1 ------------ PAGE 2 ------------ A. Origin and Identity of the People of Bangladesh „X Anthropologists agree that Bangladesh has historically been a land of many races. Long before the arrival of the Aryans in the 5 th and 6 th centuries B. C., the Bangalees were already racially mixed. It is said that the origin of human beings is Africa, but that some of them at first moved into the northern part of the Middle East and then dispersed across the world. „X The main reasons for coming to Bengal were first the zeal to conquer and occupy a new region, and the second was to do business in the wealthy and prosperous Bengal and third was environmental. „X The groups of the people who went to South- East Asia had crossed the land of Bangladesh more than fifty thousand years ago. These people developed languages, known as Austric Languages with their name Austric or Austro- Asiatic people. These people entered Bangladesh several thousand years ago from South- East Asia. Near about the same time or later some other people, whom we now classify as Mongoloid also entered the territories of Bangladesh from the East and spread mainly into the uplands and hilly areas. 2 ------------ PAGE 3 ------------ Origin and Identity of the People of Bangladesh According to Prof. Humayun Azad 1. Vaddara from Sri- Lanka 2. Mongoloid from east part of Asia 3. Indo- Aryan people from the Northern parts of the middle- east and the Eastern parts of Europe. 4. Shak people from Turkistan 5. Persian, Arab, Pathan and Mughal [ Source: Lal Nil Dipabali ba Bangla Shahityer Jibani; page no- 12- 16] 3 According to the Anthropologist 1. Austro- Asiatic from south east Asia 2. Mongoloid from east part of Asia 3. Dravidian from the Southern and western parts of South- Asia 4. Indo- Aryan people from the Northern parts of the middle- east and the eastern parts of Europe. 5. Arabs, Turks and Pathan ------------ PAGE 4 ------------ 1. Name of Bangladesh in Pre- Muslim Era ( Up to 1203) Before the coming of Aryans peoples the name our country was ‘ Bang’ . Bang was the name of tribal peoples of Dravidian those who came from the Southern and western parts of South- Asia. During the Aryans era, especially the era of Janapada, it was recognized as ‘ Banga’ . The location of Banga was in the east and southeast portion of the present day of Bangladesh. From the old stone inscription, we learn about two parts of this region. One of them is ‘ Vikrampura’ and the other is ‘ Navya’ . It is supposed that the low- lying areas of the Faridpur, Bakergang and Patuakhali were included in the ‘ Navya’ region. The ancient Banga Janapada was a powerful region. It has been learnt from the stone inscription that the reputed ‘ Banga Raj’ and the Banga soldiers took part in many formidable battles. After the Aryans people up to Sena regime that means from 756 A. D. up to 1203. it was recognized as ‘ Bengal’ . 4 B. Development Trend of the Name of Bangladesh ------------ PAGE 5 ------------ 2. Name of Bangladesh in Muslim Era ( 1203- 1757) „H I. Sultani Era ( 1338- 1538) Bangalah as a territorial name came to be used from the 14th century onwards, more specifically from the time of Sultan Shamsuddin Iliyas Shah, denoting the territory which now comprises the modern independent state of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. Ziauddin Barani was the first Muslim historian who used the terms iqlim- i- bangalah or diyar- i- bangalah ( by which he meant eastern Bengal). Shams- i- Siraj Afif ( 1357) mentioned Iliyas Shah as ' Shah- i- Bangalah' , ' Sultan- i- Bangalah' and ' Shah- i- Bangaliyan' after he had consolidated his power over whole of Bengal by bringing Lakhnauti, Satgaon and Sonargaon under his sole control. 5 ------------ PAGE 6 ------------ Name of Bangladesh in Muslim Era ( 1203- 1757) „X II. Mughal regime ( 1538- 1757): The Mughals after establishing their supremacy ( 1608) over the region included Bangalah as a subah ( province) which came to be known as Subah- i- Bangalah . Abul Fazl , the Mughal historian explained the origin of the name thus: The original name of Bangalah was Bang . Its former rulers raised mounds measuring ten yards in height and twenty in breadth throughout the province, which were called ‘ al’ . From the suffix, this name Bangalah took its rise and currency. One may not agree with the explanation of Abul Fazl, but it is obvious that he meant that ' Bangalah' originated from ' Bang', ie ' Vanga' of the pre- Muslim period. 6 ------------ PAGE 7 ------------ 7 3. Name of Bangladesh in Post Muslim Era ( up to 1971) The same name appeared in the Portuguese records as ' Bengala' and the English made it firstly ‘ Bengal’ and in 1905 A. D. on the basis of ‘ Rizli Plan’, on the 16 th October 1905, Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India by a declaration divided the province of Bengal into two parts. This event is known as the Partition of Bengal. According to the Partition of Bengal, the province of ‘ Eastern Bengal’ and Assam was formed, consisting of Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi Divisions and Assam, Dhaka became the capital of the new province. On the other hand, the province of West Bengal was formed, consisting of West Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, and Kolkata was made its capital. After 1947, on the basis of the ‘ Two Nation Theory’ it was recognized in the world as ‘ East Pakistan ’ up to 1971 in the record of Pakistan Government. During the Pakistan period firstly, the people as well as politicians of East Pakistan decided to use the name of our country as ‘ Bangladesh’ on 5 th Dec’ 1969. On the other hand on 10 th April- 1971, we declared the ‘ Government of Bangladesh’ and seven days later this Government took its oath as ‘ The Peoples Republic of Bangladesh’ . Finally the day of Victory and on 16 th Dec’ 1972, constitutionally we established the name of our country as ‘ Bangladesh ’ . ------------ PAGE 8 ------------ C. History and Evolution of the Bangla Language „H Bangla is an eastern Indo- Aryan language. It is native to the region of eastern South Asia known as Bengal, which comprises present day Bangladesh, the Indian state of West Bengel, and parts of the Indian states of Tripura and Assam. It is written with the Bengali script. With nearly 230 million total speakers, Bengali is one of the most spoken languages ( ranking 4th ) in the world where in 1993 it was 5th. ------------ PAGE 9 ------------ Chronological development trend of Bangla Language 1. Before the Indo- Aryan language: a) Austro- Asiatic Languages like Santali ( abola, acir- pacir, ador, alga etc), Mundari ( akal, akhir, amdani) and Khasi ( ator, ain, babo, biskit) b) Sino- Tibeten like Kachhari ( akaj, ajala means foolish), Garo, Tripuri etc. c) Dravidian and Kol : Their influence is evident not only in the vocabulary but also in the construction of sentences. A large number of onomatopoeic words, repetitive words and conjunctive verbs in Bangla reveal non- Aryan influence; for example, words such as ghoda- toda ( horses etc ) , kapad- chopad ( clothes etc), tuk- tuk , khatkhat , khankha , dhandha , basiya pada ( sitting down), lagiya thaka ( to persevere), etc. There is plenty of Dravidian and other non- Aryan words in Bangla, especially in place names, indicating that Bangla passed through many stages and was influenced by various other languages. ------------ PAGE 10 ------------ Chronological development trend of Bangla Language „H 2. Indo- Aryan Language: Like other Eastern Indo- Aryan languages, Bengali arose from the eastern Middle Indic languages of the Indian subcontinent. Magadhi Prakrit ( 200 BC) and Pali, the earliest recorded spoken languages in the region and the language of the Buddha, evolved into Ardhamagadhi. Ardhamagadhi, as with all of the Prakrits of North India, began to give way to what are called Apabhramsa languages . The local Apabhramsa language of the eastern subcontinent, Purvi Apabhramsa or Apabhramsa Abahatta, eventually evolved into regional dialects, which in turn formed three groups: the Bihari languages, the Oriya languages, and the Bengali- Assamese languages Historically closer to Pali, Bengali saw an increase in Sanskrit influence during the Middle Bengali ( Chaitanya era), and also during the Bengal Renaissance. Of the modern Indo- European languages in South Asia, Bengali and Marathi maintain a largely Pali/ Sanskrit vocabulary base ( use of Sanskrit words by some Bengali poets such as Jaydev, Umapatidhara and Govardhan Acharya) while Hindi and others such as Punjabi, Sindhi and Gujarati are more influenced by Arabic and Persian. ------------ PAGE 11 ------------ Chronological development trend of Bangla Language Usually three periods are identified in the history of Bengali: „H Old Bengali ( 900- 1200) — texts include Charyapada , devotional songs; emergence of pronouns Ami , tumi , etc.; verb inflections - ila , - iba , etc. Assamese branch out in this period and Oriya just before this period. ------------ PAGE 12 ------------ Chronological development trend of Bangla Language „H Middle Bengali ( 1351 – 1800) — major texts of the period, Krittivas' Ramayan has been credited to be a classic. Other narrative poems include Srikrishnavijaya by Maladhar Vasu and Srikrishnakirttan by Baru Chandidas which Spread of compound verbs; Persian influence. „H New Bengali ( since 1801) — shortening of verbs and pronouns, among other changes ( e. g. tahar ¨ tar " his"/" her"; koriyachhilô ¨ korechhilo ). ------------ PAGE 13 ------------ Chronological development trend of Bangla Language 3. Contribution of Muslim people: From the 13 th century to 15 th century ( Arabic words like Okil, Kalam, Dalal, Loksan, Khajna, Haloa, Masla etc. Persian words - Ain, Ajad, Abdar, Romal, Bagan, Goanda and some Turkish words like Toshak, Galicha, Daroga, Bibi, Lash, Chakor). 4. Contribution of Portuguese: During the 16 th Century Portuguese people came in our region and contributed for the development of our language. At present some Portuguese words used in our language like- Almary, Alkathra, Alpin, Saban, Gosal, Balti, Nilam etc. ------------ PAGE 14 ------------ Chronological development trend of Bangla Language 5. Dutch, French and English: In the Dutch, French and English started arriving in Bengal. As a result, words from these languages started entering Bangla vocabulary; for example, from the French: cartouche , cou p on, café, restora ; Dutch: hartan, iskaban, iskurup ; English: table, chair, lord/ lat , general/ jadrel, etc. 6. Contribution of William Carey: With the start of British rule in the 18th century and the spread of English education, Bangla started absorbing increasing numbers of English words. In C ALCUTTA in 1801, the efforts of its head, WILLIAM CAREY , and his associate Bengali scholars, made Bangla department. ------------ PAGE 15 ------------ Chronological development trend of Bangla Language 7. Role of some key persons: During the 19th century , the efforts of Bengali writers contributed to the further growth of the language. Among them were RAJA RAMMOHUN ROY , BHABANICHARAN BANDYOPADHYAY , ISWAR CHANDRA VIDYASAGAR , BANKIMCHANDRA CHATTOPADHYAY , MICHAEL MADHUSUDAN DUTT and MIR MOSHARRAF HOSSAIN . The 20th century witnessed the elevation of colloquial Bangla to a written literary medium through the work of many talented writers such as RABINDRANATH TAGORE and PRAMATHA CHOWDHURY . Finally, through the study of a particular dictionary, Sunitikumar Chatterji, taking JNANEDRA MOHAN DAS 's Bangala Bhashar Abhidhan into account, showed that Bangla has 51.45 per cent tadbhava words, 44.00 per cent tatsama words, 3.30 per cent Perso- Arabic words and 1.25 per cent from English, Portuguese and other languages where Jnanendra Mohan Das's lexicon has around 150,000 words. ------------ PAGE 16 ------------ Chapter Related Questions „H Discuss the development trend of the name of Bangladesh. „H What was the name of Bangladesh during the Pre- Muslim era? „H What was the name of Bangladesh during the Muslim era? „H What was the name of Bangladesh during the Post- Muslim era? „H Discuss the origin and identity of the people of Bangladesh. „H What was historical background of Bangla language? „H Discuss the role of various groups of people for developing Bangla Language. „H What role were done by the people of Europe for developing Bangla Language? „H ‘ Bangla Language is a melting pot’ - explain this statement. 16 ------------ PAGE 17 ------------ Thank You 17
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