------------
PAGE 1
------------
Group- 2
Topic: Boolean Algebra
Presented By:
1
------------
PAGE 2
------------
2
Yes, No, Maybe...
BooleanAlgebra
------------
PAGE 3
------------
3
Boolean Algebra
Boolean algebra provides the operations and the rules for working with the set { 0, 1}.
These are the rules that underlie electronic circuits , and the methods we will discuss are fundamental to VLSI design .
We are going to focus on three operations:
• Boolean complementation,
• Boolean sum, and
• Boolean product
------------
PAGE 4
------------
4
Boolean Operations
The complement is denoted by a bar ( on the slides, we will use a minus sign). It is defined by
- 0 = 1 and - 1 = 0.
The Boolean sum , denoted by or by OR, has the following values:
1 1 = 1, 1 0 = 1, 0 1 = 1, 0 0 = 0
The Boolean product , denoted by „ª or by AND, has the following values:
1 „ª 1 = 1, 1 „ª 0 = 0, 0 „ª 1 = 0, 0 „ª 0 = 0
------------
PAGE 5
------------
5
Boolean Functions and Expressions
Definition: Let B = { 0, 1}. The variable x is called a Boolean variable if it assumes values only from B.
A function from B n , the set {( x 1 , x 2 , …, x n ) | x i „¡ B, 1 „T i „T n}, to B is called a Boolean function of degree n .
Boolean functions can be represented using expressions made up from the variables and Boolean operations.
------------
PAGE 6
------------
6 Boolean Functions and Expressions
The Boolean expressions in the variables x 1 , x 2 , …, x n are defined recursively as follows:
• 0, 1, x 1 , x 2 , …, x n are Boolean expressions.
• If E 1 and E 2 are Boolean expressions, then (- E 1 ), ( E 1 E 2 ), and ( E 1 E 2 ) are Boolean expressions.
Each Boolean expression represents a Boolean function. The values of this function are obtained by substituting 0 and 1 for the variables in the expression.
------------
PAGE 7
------------
7
Boolean Functions and Expressions
For example, we can create Boolean expression in the variables x, y, and z using the “ building blocks” 0, 1, x, y, and z, and the construction rules:
Since x and y are Boolean expressions, so is xy.
Since z is a Boolean expression, so is (- z).
Since xy and (- z) are expressions, so is xy (- z).
… and so on…
------------
PAGE 8
------------
8
Boolean Functions and Expressions
Example: Give a Boolean expression for the Boolean function F( x, y) as defined by the following table:
x
y
F( x, y)
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0 Possible solution: F( x, y) = (- x) „ª y
------------
PAGE 9
------------
9
Boolean Functions and Expressions
Another Example:
Possible solution I:
F( x, y, z) = -( xz y)
0
0
1
1
F( x, y, z)
1
0
1
0
z
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
y
x
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
Possible solution II:
F( x, y, z) = (-( xz))(- y)
------------
PAGE 10
------------
10
Boolean Functions and Expressions
There is a simple method for deriving a Boolean expression for a function that is defined by a table. This method is based on minterms .
Definition: A literal is a Boolean variable or its complement. A minterm of the Boolean variables x 1 , x 2 , …, x n is a Boolean product y 1 y 2 … y n , where y i = x i or y i = - x i .
Hence, a minterm is a product of n literals, with one literal for each variable.
------------
PAGE 11
------------
11
Boolean Functions and Expressions
Consider F( x, y, z) again:
F( x, y, z) = 1 if and only if:
x = y = z = 0 or
x = y = 0, z = 1 or
x = 1, y = z = 0
Therefore,
F( x, y, z) = (- x)(- y)(- z) (- x)(- y) z x(- y)(- z)
0
0
1
1
F( x, y, z)
1
0
1
0
z
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
y
x
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
------------
PAGE 12
------------
12
Boolean Functions and Expressions
Definition: The Boolean functions F and G of n variables are equal if and only if F( b 1 , b 2 , …, b n ) = G( b 1 , b 2 , …, b n ) whenever b 1 , b 2 , …, b n belong to B.
Two different Boolean expressions that represent the same function are called equivalent .
For example, the Boolean expressions xy, xy 0, and xy „ª 1 are equivalent.
------------
PAGE 13
------------
13
Boolean Functions and Expressions
The complement of the Boolean function F is the function – F, where – F( b 1 , b 2 , …, b n ) = -( F( b 1 , b 2 , …, b n )).
Let F and G be Boolean functions of degree n. The Boolean sum F G and Boolean product FG are then defined by
( F G)( b 1 , b 2 , …, b n ) = F( b 1 , b 2 , …, b n ) G( b 1 , b 2 , …, b n )
( FG)( b 1 , b 2 , …, b n ) = F( b 1 , b 2 , …, b n ) G( b 1 , b 2 , …, b n )
------------
PAGE 14
------------
14
Boolean Functions and Expressions
Question: How many different Boolean functions of degree 1 are there?
Solution: There are four of them, F 1 , F 2 , F 3 , and F 4 :
x
F 1
F 2
F 3
F 4
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
------------
PAGE 15
------------
15
Boolean Functions and Expressions
Question: How many different Boolean functions of degree 2 are there?
Solution: There are 16 of them, F 1 , F 2 , …, F 16 :
1
0
0
0
F 2
0
0
0
0
F 1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
F 3
y
x
1
1
1
0
F 8
0
1
1
0
F 7
0
0
0
1
F 9
0
0
1
0
F 5
1
1
0
0
F 4
1
0
1
0
F 6
0
1
0
1
F 11
1
0
0
1
F 10
0
1
1
1
F 12
1
0
1
1
F 14
0
0
1
1
F 13
1
1
0
1
F 15
1
1
1
1
F 16
------------
PAGE 16
------------
16
Boolean Functions and Expressions
Question: How many different Boolean functions of degree n are there?
Solution:
There are 2 n different n- tuples of 0s and 1s.
A Boolean function is an assignment of 0 or 1 to each of these 2 n different n- tuples.
Therefore, there are 2 2n different Boolean functions.
------------
PAGE 17
------------
17
Duality
There are useful identities of Boolean expressions that can help us to transform an expression A into an equivalent expression B ( see Table 5 on page 597 in the textbook).
We can derive additional identities with the help of the dual of a Boolean expression.
The dual of a Boolean expression is obtained by interchanging Boolean sums and Boolean products and interchanging 0s and 1s.
------------
PAGE 18
------------
18
Duality
Examples:
The dual of x( y z) is
x yz.
The dual of - x „ª 1 (- y z) is
(- x 0)((- y) z).
The dual of a Boolean function F represented by a Boolean expression is the function represented by the dual of this expression.
This dual function, denoted by F d , does not depend on the particular Boolean expression used to represent F.
------------
PAGE 19
------------
19
Duality
Therefore, an identity between functions represented by Boolean expressions remains valid when the duals of both sides of the identity are taken.
We can use this fact, called the duality principle , to derive new identities.
For example, consider the absorption law x( x y) = x .
By taking the duals of both sides of this identity, we obtain the equation x xy = x , which is also an identity ( and also called an absorption law).
------------
PAGE 20
------------
20
Definition of a Boolean Algebra
All the properties of Boolean functions and expressions that we have discovered also apply to other mathematical structures such as propositions and sets and the operations defined on them.
If we can show that a particular structure is a Boolean algebra, then we know that all results established about Boolean algebras apply to this structure.
For this purpose, we need an abstract definition of a Boolean algebra.
------------
PAGE 21
------------
21
Definition of a Boolean Algebra
Definition: A Boolean algebra is a set B with two binary operations „ and „¬ , elements 0 and 1, and a unary operation – such that the following properties hold for all x, y, and z in B:
x „ 0 = x and x „¬ 1 = x ( identity laws)
x „ (- x) = 1 and x „¬ (- x) = 0 ( domination laws)
( x „ y) „ z = x „ ( y „ z) and ( x „¬ y) „¬ z = x „¬ ( y „¬ z) and ( associative laws)
x „ y = y „ x and x „¬ y = y „¬ x ( commutative laws)
x „ ( y „¬ z) = ( x „ y) „¬ ( x „ z) and x „¬ ( y „ z) = ( x „¬ y) „ ( x „¬ z) ( distributive laws)
------------
PAGE 22
------------
22
Logic Gates
Electronic circuits consist of so- called gates. There are three basic types of gates:
x
y
x y
OR gate
AND gate
x
y
xy
x
- x
inverter
------------
PAGE 23
------------
23
Logic Gates
Example: How can we build a circuit that computes the function xy (- x) y ?
xy (- x) y
x
y
xy
x
- x
y
(- x) y
------------
PAGE 24
------------
24
The End
Back to top of page