BANGLADESH

BANGLADESH

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BANGLADESH - Overview

------------ PAGE 1 ------------ Asian Business Country Report ------------ PAGE 2 ------------ Current Opportunities History Geographic Population Social and Political Economy Development Recommendations ------------ PAGE 3 ------------ History and Country Overview Current Opportunities History Geography Population Social and Pollitical Economic ------------ PAGE 4 ------------ Economic ------------ PAGE 5 ------------ Economic ------------ PAGE 6 ------------ ƒí Official name : People’s Republic of Bangladesh ƒí National flag ƒí National emblem ƒí Capital city : Dhaka ƒí Nationality : Bangladeshi ƒí Name of currency : Taka ( TK) ƒí Area : 147570 sq. km ------------ PAGE 7 ------------ ƒí Boundary: North - India West - India South - Bay of Bengal East - India and Myanmar ------------ PAGE 8 ------------ Myanmar ------------ PAGE 9 ------------ ƒí Bengali 98%, other 2% ( includes tribal groups, non- Bengali Muslims) ( 1998) ------------ PAGE 10 ------------ ƒí - Bangla ( official, also known as Bengali ) , English ------------ PAGE 11 ------------ ƒí Muslim 90%, Hindu 9%, other 1% ( 1998) Source: en . wikipedia . org / wiki / Demographics_ of_ Bangladesh ------------ PAGE 12 ------------ Muslim Population across Bangladesh District Percentage (%) Barisal 88% Chittago ng 84% Dhaka 90% Khulna 82.87% Rajshahi 86.84% Sylhet 81.16% Hindu Population across Bangladesh District Percentage (%) Barisal 11.70 Chittago ng 12.65 Dhaka 9.64 Khulna 16.45 Rajshahi 12.09 Sylhet 17.80 ------------ PAGE 13 ------------ Geography and Natural Resources Current Opportunities History Geography Population Social and Political Economy ------------ PAGE 14 ------------ • Natural Gas Country Trade Value Share Growth ( thousands) (%) (% 5yr) United States 2,759,388 20.27 28.47 Italy 2,225,120 16.34 47.10 Germany 1,202,202 8.83 191.25 Netherlands 639,905 4.70 64.55 United Kingdom 584,299 4.29 110.62 Spain 554,246 4.07 33.29 Saudi Arabia 397,085 2.92 ( 20.30) ….. ….. …. …. Thailand 12,495 0.09 ( 41.58) Argentina 11,645 0.09 146.65 Nicaragua 10,087 0.07 ( 16.14) Finland 9,372 0.07 126.02 Honduras 8,714 0.06 15.13 Iran 8,474 0.06 97.21 Bangladesh 7,599 0.06 255.36 Natural gas - Production( cu m) 2008 Country Production ( cu m ) % 1 World 2,833,000,000,000 100 2 Russia 656,000,000,000 23.16 3 US 490,800,000,000 17.32 4 EU 213,700,000,000 7.54 5 Canada 178,200,000,000 6.29 … … … … 28 Thaland 22,730,000,000 0.8 … … … … 33 Bangladesh 13,430,000,000 0.47 ------------ PAGE 15 ------------ ƒí Bangladesh Tea „G Bangladesh Tea Board: To regulate, control and promote the cultivation, sale and export of tea. „G In Chittagong, Panchagar and Sylhet Districts Geographic -- Natural Resource ANNUAL PRODUCTION Year 2008- 09 2007- 08 2006- 07 PRODUCTION TARGET 59,000 58,500 58,000 ACHIEVEMENTS 42,377* 58,839* 55,427 Global Production of Tea 2006 ( Million Kg ) Production ( In mkg) 32% 29% 10% 10% 4% 4% 4% 3% 2% 2% 1. China 2. India 3. Kenya 4. Sri Lanka 5. Turkey 6. Indonesia 7. Vietnam 8. Japan 9. Argentina 10. Bangladesh t ------------ PAGE 16 ------------ ƒí Arable Land ƒí Timber ƒí Coal ƒí Leather „X 21.50 million Bovine and 17.50 million Goat and Sheep „X Bangladesh produces the world’s finest goatskin of smooth grain pattern. ƒí Jute ( Natural fiber) „X Bangladesh has been blessed with the favorable climate and the potentials to be the largest grower and exporter of the best quality jute, the golden fiber. This gives Bangladesh advantage over other jute growers anywhere in the world. Geographic -- Natural Resource No Data Water > 60 40 - 60 30 - 40 Undetermined ( 0 - 30) Sparsely Vegetated Permanent Crops and Arable Land ( Percentage Intensity) Other Resources ------------ PAGE 17 ------------ Population and Demographics Current Opportunities History Geography Population Social and Political Economy ------------ PAGE 18 ------------ • Population: 153,546,896 ( July 2008 est.) • Population growth rate: 2.002% ( 2008 est.) • Population Density: 1,123.5 person/ sq km » Thailand # 86 „³ 127.14 person/ sq km » U. S. # 172 „³ 32.87 person/ sq km • Age Structure : – 0- 14 years: 33.4% Male 26,364,370 „G Female 24,859,792 – 15- 64 years: 63.1% Male 49,412,903 „G Female 47,468,013 – 65 years/ over: 3.5% Male 2,912,321 „G Female 2,529,502 • Life Expectancy: 63.21 years – rank # 169 ( 2008 est.) Rank Country Population 1 World 6,706,993,152 2 China 1,330,044,544 3 India 1,147,995,904 4 European Union 491,018,683 5 United States 303,824,640 6 Indonesia 237,512,352 7 Brazil 196,342,592 8 Pakistan 172,800,048 9 Bangladesh 153,546,896 … … … 22 Thailand 65,493,296 Notice!!! There is a significant decrease in % of people between 0- 14 years „³ Next 15 years, the number of population in Bangladesh is likely to decrease. ------------ PAGE 19 ------------ ƒí Life Expectancy at birth: 63.21 years – rank # 169 ( 2008 est.) ƒí Literacy Bangladesh Thailand U. S. „X Total Population 43.1% 92.6% 99% - Male 53.9% 94.9% 99% - Female 31.8% 90.5% 99% ƒí Education „X Education Expenditure - 2.7% of GDP ( 2005) ---- Thailand ( 4.2%) ---- U. S. ( 5.3%) „X Primary School: 16 , 225 , 658 students „X Secondary School: 7 , 398 , 552 students „X Colleges: 1 , 367 , 246 students „X Professional Education: 60,043 students Demographic 61.3361.7162.0862.4662.8463.216061626364200320042005200620072008 Life Expectancy at birth ( 2003- 2008) ------------ PAGE 20 ------------ ƒí Income „X Household Income or Consumption - Lowest 10%: 3.7% - Highest 10%: 27.9% „X Distribution of Family Income – Gini Index Bangladesh Thailand U. S 33.2 42 45 ƒí Labor Force „X 70.86 million Note: Extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar and Malaysia „X Workers' remittances estimated at $ 4.8 billion in 2005- 2006 „X By occupation - Agriculture: 63% - Industry: 11% - Services: 26% Demographic ------------ PAGE 21 ------------ Social and Political Environment Current Opportunities History Geography Population Social and Political Economy ------------ PAGE 22 ------------ ƒí Previously known as East Pakistan, the war for independence in 1971 brought about the establishment of People’s Republic of Bangladesh with the help of India. ƒí Problems after Independence: famines, natural disasters, prevailing poverty ( later tackled with Education and Population policies), political turmoil, and military coups. ƒí Restoration of democracy in 1991. ƒí Constitution was given in 1992. ------------ PAGE 23 ------------ ƒí A parliamentary representative democratic republic. ƒí Political crisis during 2006- 2008 „G Widespread violence and rioting, taking lives of more than 40 peoople. ƒí Current government „G President: Zillur Rahman. „G Prime Minister: Sheikh Hasina. ƒí Important policies „G Education „G Population ------------ PAGE 24 ------------ Opportunities • Foreign Relationships Threats • Transparency – Press: Bangladesh’s Freedom of Press ranked at 136 out of 173 nations. – Corruption: Ranked 147 on CPI from 180 countries with the score of 2.1 in 2008. • Political Instability – The 12 th highest instability in the world on the Failed States Index ( FSI) in 2007. • Economic Freedom – In 2008, Bangladesh ranked 108 out of 141 countries with the score of 5.94. ------------ PAGE 25 ------------ 0 20 40 60 80 1973 1991 2000 2005 Poverty Rates in Bangladesh „« Poverty Rate has continued to fall at 1%/ year „« Still far too high, but each 1% is hundreds of thousands of people improvement. „« 18% of people in 2002 lived under straw roofs and only 54% had access to safe latrines. „« Today, only 7% live under straw roofs and 71% have access to safe latrines. ------------ PAGE 26 ------------ Climate and Land Usage Natural Disasters Urban Drift and Population Density ------------ PAGE 27 ------------ ƒí Inequality Between Rich and Poor . Gini Index of inequality stagnant since 1995 showing a more equal distribution of income. . Still score shows large income disparity. ƒí Inequality Between Males and Females . School enrollment rates, literacy rates, and until recently life expectancy suggests women are marginalized in society. . Microfinance and modernization are helping to change this but much work still to be done. ------------ PAGE 28 ------------ ƒí Grameen is a system of companies that originally started offering Micro- Loans to poor people. ƒí Today Grameen operates numerous social businesses from education, financial, health care, communication, nutrition, etc… that are owned by the borrowers of Grameen Bank. ƒí Much of the improvements in the field of poverty and equality have been attributed to Grameen and Professor Mohammed Yunus who also won the Nobel Peace Prize. ------------ PAGE 29 ------------ Prize. ------------ PAGE 30 ------------ Economic Structure and Development Current Opportunities History Geography Population Social and Political Economy ------------ PAGE 31 ------------ • GDP per capita $ 1700 in 2008 • GDP growth rate 5.9 % – agriculture : 19.1% – industry: 28.6% – services : 52.3% • Public Dept 43.6% of GDP • Labor Force 70.86 million people • Resource endowment – human resource base – rich agricultural land – relatively abundant water – natural gas ------------ PAGE 32 ------------ ƒí > 1/ 2 of GDP is generated through the service sector ƒí Rice as the single- most- important product. ƒí Garment exports, and ƒí Remittances from Bangladeshis working overseas, mainly in the Middle East and East Asia . workers' remittances estimated at $ 4.8 billion in 2005- 06 ------------ PAGE 33 ------------ Arable land55% Permanent Crops3% Other42% ArablelandPermanentcropsOther ------------ PAGE 34 ------------ ƒí GDP - composition by sector ( 2008 est.) : Services52% Industry29% Agriculture19% AgricultureIndustryServices ------------ PAGE 35 ------------ ƒí Climate: tropical; mild winter ( October to March); hot, humid summer ( March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon ( June to October) ƒí Terrain: mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeastern But: Natural hazards: droughts, cyclones; routine floods yearly . About a third of this extremely poor country floods annually during the monsoon rainy season, hampering economic development. ƒí Soil degradation/ erosion; deforestation ------------ PAGE 36 ------------ ƒí Agriculture - products: - Rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry ƒí Industries: - cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint, cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar . Electricity - production: - 22.78 billion kWh ( 2007 est.) . Natural gas - production: - 15.7 billion cu m ( 2007 est.) . Oil - production: - 6,746 bbl/ day ( 2007 est.) ------------ PAGE 37 ------------ ƒí Exports: $ 13.97 billion ƒí Exports - commodities: garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and seafood ƒí Exports - partners: US 23%, Germany 13%, UK 9.1%, France 5.5%, Belgium 4% ƒí Imports: $ 20.17 billion ƒí Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs, petroleum products, cement ƒí Imports - partners: China 15%, India 14.3%, Kuwait 8.3%, Singapore 6.2%, Hong Kong 4.2% ------------ PAGE 38 ------------ Type Bangladesh Thailand USA Telephones 1.178M 7.024M 163.2M Cellular Phones 34.37M 51.377M 255M Internet Hosts 1,440 1.116M 316M Internet Users 500,000 13.416M 223M Railways 2,768 km 4,071 km 226,612 km Highways 239,226 km 62,401 km 6,430,366 km Airports ( Paved) 15 65 5,143 Heliport - 3 146 Ports and terminals 2 4 10 Electricity Production 22.78 B kWh 130.7B kWh 4.167T kWh Electricity Consumption 21.37 B kWh 123.9B kWh 3.892T kWh ------------ PAGE 39 ------------ Independence in 1971- 1990 ƒí $ 30 billion in grant aid and loan commitments from foreign donors ƒí Large trade deficit, financed through aid receipts and remittances from workers overseas ƒí The static economic model- the nationalization of much of the industrial sector resulted in inefficiency and economic stagnation ------------ PAGE 40 ------------ 1975 ƒí Greater scope to private sector, but banking and jute sectors remain under government control ƒí Inefficiency in the public sector ƒí Resistance developing the country's richest natural resources ƒí Limited capital restrict Mid- 1980s ƒí Encouraging private enterprise and investment ƒí Denationalizing public industries ƒí Reinstating budgetary discipline ƒí Liberalizing the import ------------ PAGE 41 ------------ 1991- 1993 ƒí New economic program - financial sector reform, liberalization, encourage investment ƒí Income transfer measures, Food- for- Work ƒí Successfully followed an enhanced structural adjustment facility ( ESAF) with the International Monetary Fund ( IMF) ƒí Failed to follow through on reforms in large part because of domestic political troubles ------------ PAGE 42 ------------ Late 1990s to 2001 ƒí Exports grew 14% in 1996 ƒí GDP growth rose 5.5% from 1996 to 1997 ƒí Economic slowdown because of flooding in 1998- 1999 ƒí Unprecedented growth in gas production and electricity production sectors ƒí Economic policies became more entrenched ƒí Drop in foreign investment 2002- 2003 ƒí IMF approved 3- year, $ 490- million plan as part of the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility ( PRGF) ƒí World Bank approved $ 536 million in interest- free loans ƒí The privatization of public sector industries has proceeded at a slow pace - worker unrest in affected industries ƒí Access to capital is impeded ƒí State- owned banks control about three- fourths of deposits and loans, carry classified loan burdens of about 50%. ------------ PAGE 43 ------------ Now ƒí poor, overpopulated, and inefficiently- governed nation ƒí Half of income from service sectors ƒí two- thirds of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector ƒí Garment exports and remittances from Bangladeshis working overseas fuel economic growth ƒí Pursued a monetary policy aimed at maintaining high employment ƒí Higher inflation ƒí A lot of banks, but dominated by 4 Nationalized Commercial Banks ƒí Nobel Prize Winning, Garmeen Bank, Specialized micro finance bank ------------ PAGE 44 ------------ Supplement to Economics Section ------------ PAGE 45 ------------ Section ------------ PAGE 46 ------------ ƒí Hierarchical society ( age and position) „G Wiser „G Granted respect ƒí The most senior male is expected, by age or position, to make decisions ------------ PAGE 47 ------------ ƒí Relatively implicit/ indirect communication . long, rich and contextualized sentences ( only make sense with body language) . Aware: communication styles may be seen as rude and the information provided inadequate. ƒí Less personal space: stand close when speaking to someone . same gender ( otherwise, space increases) . touch is common ------------ PAGE 48 ------------ ƒí Relatively formal ƒí Proper behaviour is expected ƒí Men: a handshake, rather soft ( arriving and leaving) ƒí Foreign men: nod to a Bangladeshi woman ( unless she extends her hand) ƒí Addressing men: " Bahadur" (" Sir"), ƒí Addressing women: " Begum" (" Madam") ƒí Wait until your counterpart moves to a first name basis before you do so. ------------ PAGE 49 ------------ ƒí The importance: the thought rather than the value . gifts should be generally reciprocated . rude to offer someone a gift that is difficult to reciprocate ------------ PAGE 50 ------------ Frangipanis White flowers Alcohol Non- halal meat Money Open gifts in front of the giver Some guidelines : • Gifts are given with two hands ------------ PAGE 51 ------------ ƒí Exchanged after the initial introduction ƒí Educational qualifications are valued: include any university degrees ƒí Present your business card with the right hand ƒí Treat business cards given to you with respect . Study it, comment on it and ideally place it into a business card holder ------------ PAGE 52 ------------ ƒí The place where decisions are disseminated rather than made ƒí Usually lead by the most senior present, who sets the agenda, the content, and the pace of the activities ƒí Meeting structures: not very linear ( an agenda and a starting time = guidelines) ƒí Priority: Completing a meeting . time may be extended ƒí Meetings may begin with some small talk ƒí Communication is formal and follows a hierarchical structure. Respect to the most senior person in the group is expected ( especially dealing with government officials) ------------ PAGE 53 ------------ ƒí Never let professionalism slip. Casual behavior may be misinterpreted as a lack of respect. ƒí Never lose your temper or show emotion. . May lead to a loss of face = a loss of dignity and respect. ƒí The need to avoid a loss of face is also reflected in communication styles. . Re- phrase sentiments: " we will try", " that may be difficult", or " we will have to give that some thought" . Therefore: ask questions in several ways to be certain . Silence is often used as a communication tool. ƒí Lack of smiles = demonstrate maturity ------------ PAGE 54 ------------ Current Opportunities Current Opportunities History Geography Population Social and Political Economy ------------ PAGE 55 ------------ Imagine you are an investor with $ 1 Million. You have identified 3 potential investment opportunities in Bangladesh. ƒí IT/ Software Outsourcing ƒí Natural Gas Sector ƒí Textile Manufacturing Where are you going to invest? ------------ PAGE 56 ------------ ƒí IT/ Software . Global Recession makes outsourcing to Bangladesh an economic possibility ƒí Natural Gas . Global non- oil energy demand steadily Increasing, with abundant supplies in Bangladesh ƒí Textile Manufacturing . New duty free textile agreements increase outreach of Bengali goods except USA 17.5% 11% 24.4 % ------------ PAGE 57 ------------ Development Recommendations Current Opportunities History Geography Population Social and Political Economy Development Recommendations ------------ PAGE 58 ------------ 1) Increase FDI Inflows into Bangladesh 2) Pursue Free Trade/ Open Economy 3) Develop Infrastructure and Disaster Response 4) Focus on Educating Workforce and Labour Mobility ------------ PAGE 59 ------------ ƒí Participation in Regional Organizations ( eg: SAARC) ƒí Trade Talks with both Developed and Developing Partners ( eg: US, India) ƒí Spending on Infrastructure, Disaster Response, and Education ( eg: WB) ƒí Use of NGO’s and Privatization when necessary and appropriate ( eg: Grameen) ------------ PAGE 60 ------------ Current Opportunities History Geographic Population Social and Political Economy Development Recommendations “ Moving up the economic ladder as quickly as possible is the best protection against every form of foreign domination.” – Mohammed Yunus ------------ PAGE 61 ------------ • http:// en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Politics_ of_ Bangladesh • http:// en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ 2006% E2% 80% 932008_ Bangladeshi_ political_ crisis • Muhammad Yunus – Creating A World Without Poverty • http:// news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ south_ asia/ 6241263. stm • http:// en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Human_ rights_ in_ Bangladesh • http:// en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Transparency_ International • http:// en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ List_ of_ countries_ by_ economic_ freedom • http:// en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Corruption_ Perception_ Index# CPI_ Ranking_. 2820zz. E2.80.932008.29 • www. transparency. org/ news_ room/ in_ focus/ 2008/ cpi2008/ cpi_ 2008_ table • http:// en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Reporters_ Without_ Borders • http:// en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Transparency_( humanities)# Politics • http:// en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Ease_ of_ Doing_ Business_ Index • http:// en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ List_ of_ countries_ by_ Failed_ States_ Index • http:// en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Bangladesh_ Liberation_ War • http:// english. people. com. cn/ 90001/ 90778/ 90858/ 90863/ 6598183. html • http:// energy. ihs. com/ News/ published- articles/ articles/ bangladesh- natural- gas- perspective. htm • http:// goliath. ecnext. com/ coms2/ gi_ 0199- 5878353/ PROFILE- BANGLADESH- S- TEXTILE- INDUSTRY. html ƒí http:// www. photius. com/ countries/ bangladesh/ economy/ bangladesh_ economy_ natural_ gas. html ƒí http:// www. theodora. com/ wfbcurrent/ bangladesh/ index. html ƒí http:// www. photius. com/ rankings/ economy/ natural_ gas_ production_ 2008_ 0. html ƒí http:// www. epb. gov. bd/ ƒí http:// www. teaandcoffee. net/ 0201/ tea. htm ƒí http:// www. thefinancialexpress- bd. info/ search_ index. php? page= detail_ newsand news_ id= 48297 ƒí http:// www. teaboard. gov. bd/ ƒí http:// www. fao. org/ countryprofiles/ Maps/ BGD/ 12/ al/ index. html ƒí https:// www. cia. gov/ library/ publications/ the- world- factbook/ flags/ bg- flag. html ƒí http:// www. kwintessential. co. uk/ resources/ global- etiquette/ bangladesh. html ƒí http:// www. bangladesh. com/ culture/
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