Donor aided development in Education in Bangladesh

Donor aided development in Education in Bangladesh

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Donor aided development in Education in Bangladesh - Overview

------------ PAGE 1 ------------ DONOR AIDED DEVELOPMENT IN EDUCATION IN BANGLADESH: ANALYZING CURRENT DONOR POLICIES AND PRIORITIES Ridwanul Mosrur, Global Education Cooperation, College of Education, Seoul National University International Education Development Forum ( IEDF) Seoul National University ( SNU) | October 12 to 14, 2016 | Seoul, Republic of Korea. ------------ PAGE 2 ------------ Why and What Since 1971, its is 45 years of development investment; the country is enriched with natural resources as well as 160 million people, but still why Bangladesh is not developed as expected? There could be many reasons – but I will focus to and from Education for answer. It will be my long quest and this paper is the beginning. In this paper, the purpose is to understand the donor priorities for the Education Sector in Bangladesh, based on Policy Papers and evidence from budget allocations in relation with Government Long- term Educational Planning. Methodology: Policy Document and Secondary Data analysis ------------ PAGE 3 ------------ People's Republic of Bangladesh Official languages Bengali Ethnic groups ( 2011) 98% Bengalis 2% Others Religion 89.1% Islam 10% Hinduism 0.9% Others Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic Area 147,570km 2 ( 92nd) Population 2015 estimate 168,957,745 ( 8th) 2011 census 149,772,364 ( 8th) Density 1,319/ km 2 ( 10th) GDP ( PPP) ( 2015 estimate) Total $ 572.440 billion ( 34th) Per capita $ 3,581 ( 144th) Gini ( 2010) 32.1 | medium HDI ( 2015) 0.570 | medium | 142nd 18000 BC Stone Age 4000 BC Copper Age 1000 BC Iron Age ( urban settlement) Mauryan Empire 322 – 185 BC Gupta Empire 700 – 1100 AD 320 - 550 AD Pala Empire 1100 – 1500 AD Islamic Empire Mughol Empire 1500 – 1857 AD 1857 - 1946 AD 1946 - 1971 AD British Colony East Pakistan 1971 AD Bangladesh Please note that, Ancient Bengal ( now known as Bangladesh) was invaded by the ancient Romans, Greeks, Persian, Turks, Huns and also Alexander the Great. It has strong business relations with China, Arab, Europe ( Grand Silk Road). Also invaded by middle aged Dutch, Portuguese, French and British. ------------ PAGE 4 ------------ OVERVIEW OF ODA IN BANGLADESH ------------ PAGE 5 ------------ ODA Overview to Asia/ Bangladesh Trends in aid to Bangladesh since 1970 ( in billion) Source: OECD ( 2016) Development Aid at a Glance 2016 ------------ PAGE 6 ------------ ODA Overview to Bangladesh ------------ PAGE 7 ------------ ODA trends 2004- 2014 to Bangladesh Source: Data extracted on 01 Jun 2016 01: 51 UTC ( GMT) from OECD Stat In million ( USD) „³ 0.000 500.000 1,000.000 1,500.000 2,000.000 2,500.000 3,000.000 3,500.000 4,000.000 4,500.000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Bilateral vs Multilateral ODA trends 2004- 2014 to Bangladesh DAC Countries, Total Multilateral, Total ------------ PAGE 8 ------------ Bilateral ODA to Bangladesh 0.00 200.00 400.00 600.00 800.00 1000.00 1200.00 1400.00 Australia Austria Belgium Canada Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom United States 2014 2005 In million ( USD) „³ Source: Data extracted on 01 Jun 2016 01: 51 UTC ( GMT) from OECD Stat ------------ PAGE 9 ------------ ODA by Sector and Donor ( to Bangladesh) Source: OECD stats - http:// www2. compareyourcountry. org/ aid- statistics? cr= 666and lg= enand page= 31# ------------ PAGE 10 ------------ FUNDING TRENDS IN EDUCATION Last 10 years ------------ PAGE 11 ------------ Education Sector Super- Structure and ODA trends Source: OECD Stats ------------ PAGE 12 ------------ Education sub- sector ODA 2005 – 2014 commitment, USD million Source: OECD Data, http:// www. oecd. org/ dac/ stats/ education- related- aid- data. htm ------------ PAGE 13 ------------ Why funding moved to Primary from Secondary? Year Primary Education Secondary Education GER (%) NER (%) GER (%) NER (%) Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total 2005 91.2 96.2 93.7 84.6 90.1 87.2 2008 92.8 102.9 97.6 87.9 90.4 90.8 44.32 55.88 49.81 39.88 50.83 45.09 2010 103.2 112.4 107.7 92.2 97.6 94.8 49.59 62.62 55.81 44.45 55.09 49.53 2015 105 113.4 109.2 97.1 98.8 97.7 67.75 77.84 72.78 62.16 71.85 67.00 Possible Interpretation: • Gap in Primary Education Quality – Success in Number, Failure in terms of Competency Achievement • MDG goal achievement at Primary level and Commitment of Universal Primary Education in National Education Policy 2010 • Gender equity achievement at Secondary level as a temporary situation based target of few donors Source: Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics ( BANBEIS), 2015 Report ------------ PAGE 14 ------------ ODA Loan vs Grants: Education in Bangladesh ------------ PAGE 15 ------------ Trends in National Budget for Education Education budget as % of GDP and total budget Development vs. Non- Development allocation Source: Center for Policy Dialogue ( 2016), Budget for Education in Bangladesh ------------ PAGE 16 ------------ National Budget for Education Share of domestic finance and foreign aid The share of domestic finance in total education budget has been around 90% on an average over the last 14 years. Source: Ministry of Finance, Government of Bangladesh ------------ PAGE 17 ------------ Major Donors in Financing Educational Development in Bangladesh during 2005 - 2014 Source: OECD Data, http:// www. oecd. org/ dac/ stats/ education- related- aid- data. htm ------------ PAGE 18 ------------ CURRENT ODA PRIORITIES AND POLICI ES IN EDUCATION IN BANGLADESH ------------ PAGE 19 ------------ Donor Priorities: Education Donor Category Name of the Donors Education Education Basic/ ECD TVET/ Skills De velopment Secondary and High er Education Education for Chil dren with Special Needs Bilateral Donors DFID CIDA AusAID DANIDA USAID Netherland SIDA KOICA JICA Norwegian SDC ------------ PAGE 20 ------------ Donor Priorities: Education Donor Category Name of the Donors Education Education Basic/ ECD TVET/ Skills Development Secondary and Higher Education Education for Children with Special Needs Multilateral Donors EC ECHO UNICEF World Bank ADB UNDP UNAIDS UN Women Private Donors Dubai Cares IKEA ( F) Uniliver ( F) Gate ( F) Rockefeller ( F) Chevron ------------ PAGE 21 ------------ Analyzing ( bilateral) Donors ’ Budget allocation: Education in Bangladesh • USAID’s ODA Budget 2014 - 15 for Bangladesh analysis depicted that it allocated 4.4 million USD for the ‘ education’ sector ( 4.2 million for basic education and 145K for higher edn) • DFID had approved £ 162,805,744 project ( 37 active projects) budget for 2016/ 2017 for Bangladesh which is 1.78% of DFID’s total budget; Education is the top prioritized subsector with 23.92% allocation. • For 2014- 15, the budget of AusAid/ DFAT is 29.3 million Australian dollar while SIDA allocated SEK 79,298,564 for the year 2013. • From the OECD data, it was seen that the JICA has massive ODA for Bangladesh though the number of JICA’s education project is only 2. However, it need to be mentioned that, large amount of JICA’s fund is channelize through Asian Development Bank. https:// explorer. usaid. gov/ country- detail. html# Bangladesh http:// www. unaidsbd. org/ index. php/ topcontent/ view/ 3 http:// devtracker. dfid. gov. uk/ countries/ BD/ http:// aid. dfat. gov. au/ countries/ southasia/ bangladesh/ Pages/ home. aspx ------------ PAGE 22 ------------ Analyzing ( bilateral) Donors ’ Budget allocation: Education in Bangladesh • KOICA’s fund to Bangladesh is though not large but seems very crucial as KOICA is financing the education for the children which remained uncharted by many other bilateral and multilateral donors. KOICA’s notable contribution is going to - „X ICT integration in education „X Technical and Vocational Education ( Business Partnership Program of KOICA in partnership with Korean companies) „X multilingual basic education for the ethnic children in Chittagong Hill Tracts „X Basic education for children living in the brothels „X Girls Education • It need to be mentioned that, apart from KOICA, the support from Korean people has been extended to the children in Bangladesh through large scale sponsorship programs operated by different iNGOs. • Though the budget allocation data of Norway for Bangladesh wasn’t publicly available, but it was made clear that Norway’s contribution for the Education in Bangladesh is going for the primary education sector development projects in Bangladesh. ------------ PAGE 23 ------------ Analyzing ( multilateral) Donors ’ Budget allocation: Education in Bangladesh • Among the multilateral donors, EC has scored the highest and mostly contribute to TVET and skill development education. The budget allocation of EC for Bangladesh during the period of 2015 – 2020 is € 276- 310 million. • ECHO is contributing based on need in post- disaster situation through different international grants- maker ( e. g.- Save the Children) to reconstruct school building and financing temporary education programs. • UNHCR made annual contribution for the basic and skill development education for the Rohynga community in Cox’s Bazar who are forcefully migrated from Myanmar to Bangladesh and living in isolated camps. UNHCR also operated primary schools for the Bihary community in Bangladesh who are isolated Pakistani stayed in Bangladesh since the Independence war in 1971 in isolated camps. • UNICEF is financing different initiatives and campaigns to promote girls education, quality basic education as well as providing technical support to government and non- government entities. ------------ PAGE 24 ------------ Analyzing ( multilateral) Donors ’ Budget allocation: Education in Bangladesh • ADB and World Bank’s contribution is far largescale than others and often implemented by large scale umbrella programs; e. g.- SEIP, ROSC, PEDP, SEQAEP, HEQEP etc. • ADB has provided Bangladesh with $ 17.2 billion in loans and $ 244.6 million for technical assistance projects since 1973. Priorities: • energy security, • transport services and connectivity, • education and skills development, • water resources management, • urban infrastructure, • finance. financing for education $ 120 million for the Third Primary Education Development Program, the second tranche of $ 185 million for the Secondary Education Sector Investment Program, ADB’s Investment in Bangladesh ------------ PAGE 25 ------------ Analyzing ( multilateral) Donors’ Budget allocation: Education in Bangladesh – World Bank World Bank’s Investment in Education, Bangladesh Name of Project Cost ( U SD in million) Status Ending date Bangladesh - Skills and Training Enhancement Project 79 Active 10- Jun- 10 Bangladesh - Secondary Education Quality and Access Improvement 130.7 Active 31- Jul- 08 Bangladesh - Higher Education Quality Enhancement Project 81 Active 17- Mar- 09 Bangladesh - Primary Education Development Program III 300 Active 25- Aug- 11 BD: Leveraging ICT Growth, Employment and Governance Project 70 Active 20- Sep- 12 BD: Reaching Out of School Children II 130 Active 2- Oct- 12 Additional Financing: Skills and Training Enhancement Project 16.71 Active 26- Sep- 13 BD Higher Education Quality Enhancement Project - AF 125 Active 3- Dec- 13 Secondary Education Quality and Access Enhancement Project - AF 265 Active 3- Dec- 13 AF Bangladesh - Primary Education Development Program III 400 Active 16- Dec- 14 College Education Development Project 100 Active 3- Jun- 16 Additional Financing Skills and Training Enhancement Project 100 Active 30- Oct- 15 • In 2015, WB supported 29% of the total development budget of Bangladesh and the Lending amount was 1939 million USD. However, among the currently active 18 projects ( 3051 million USD) of WB in Bangladesh 10 projects are on education with net worth of 1797 million USD. ------------ PAGE 26 ------------ Analyzing ( private) Donors’ Budget allocation: Education in Bangladesh Among the Private or Corporate donors, in Education, the contribution of IKEA Foundations and Dubai Care are mostly mentionable. • IKEA is contributing significantly for the education for children with special needs and inclusive education through its 3 rd phase of Soft Toys Campaign. • Dubai Cares is focusing on delivering quality primary education for all through Education for Vulnerable Children, School Feeding Program and Establishment of Libraries. • Chevron is contributing to skill development program along with Basic Education program in its business areas and in coordination with SEIP program and other donor financed basic education program to generate maximum impact. ------------ PAGE 27 ------------ Challenges and Issues • Before 2015, the ‘ lack of coordination’ in development initiatives were prominent which is responsible for reduced impact. • Mismanagement and corruption. • Donors, in some extent, don’t have clear understanding on the national nature and therefore the predictive national behavior won’t stands – which failed to ensure proper investment at proper place at proper time. • Political and Business goal focused development investment. • ODA and Country Partnership Documents are not always unambiguous and, therefore, government failed to initiate development plan with reliable funding availability prediction. • Lack of Coordination among the different sectors and policies in Bangladesh ------------ PAGE 28 ------------ Limitation of the Study Limitations: • This study is overview ( because of shortage of time and capacity) – failed to move in depth; therefore the conclusion might be deceptive. • The study is based on mainly secondary data and policy documents – chances of misinterpretations.
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