The Political History of Bangladesh

The Political History of Bangladesh

Project Type: Presentation (pptx)

Downloads: 0 - 10 Tuesday 14th March 2017 Report

The Political History of Bangladesh - Overview

------------ PAGE 1 ------------ ------------ PAGE 2 ------------ Course : GED201 ( Bangladesh Studies) Course Teacher : Sharmin Akter Sumi ( SAS) Section : P Depertment : CSE( 43 Batch) Group Members : 01. Md. Ashaf Uddaula ( 161- 15- 7473 ) 02. Alamin Hossain ( 161- 15- 7483 ) 03. Md. Khasrur Rahman ( 161- 15- 7214 ) 04. Md. Eram Talukder ( 161- 15- 7485 ) 05. Ijaz Ahmed Utsa ( 161- 15- 7180 ) 2 ------------ PAGE 3 ------------ Periods of The Political History of Bangladesh Pre- Ancient Period Time Frame: 7000 BC to 26 BC Ancient Period Time Frame: 400 BC to 1204 AD Mediaeval Period Time Frame: 1204 AD to 1757 AD Modern Period Time Frame: 1757 AD to till The Political History of Bangladesh 3 ------------ PAGE 4 ------------ Pre Ancient History of Bengal • Stone Age: 7000 – 3000 BC ( Austro- Asiatic, Mongoloid and Dravidian) • Bronze Age: 3000- 1300 BC • Iron Age: 1200- 26 BC ( Indo- Aryan and Maurya Era) • Magadha Empire 4 ------------ PAGE 5 ------------ Stone Age: 7000 – 3000 BC ( Austro- Asiatic, Mongoloid and Dravidian) • The stone age is a broad Prehistoric which means the spans of time before recorded history or the invention of writing systems. • It also refers ‘ beginning of the universe’ / ‘ life appeared on earth’ / ‘ since human like beings appeared. • This age lasted 3.4 million years, and ended 4500 BC and 2000 BC with the advent of metalworking. 5 ------------ PAGE 6 ------------ Stone Age: 7000 – 3000 BC ( Austro- Asiatic, Mongoloid and Dravidian) Stone Age covers Paleolithic Mesolithic Neolithic 6 ------------ PAGE 7 ------------ Bronze Age: 3000- 1300 BC • The Bronze Age is a time period characterized by the use of bronze, proto- writing, and other early features of urban civilization. 7 ------------ PAGE 8 ------------ Iron Age: 1200- 26 BC ( Indo- Aryan and Maurya Era) • The Iron Age is the 3 rd principal period of the three- age Stone- Bronze- Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian J. Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies. • The Iron Age as an archaeological term indicates the condition as to civilization and culture of a people using iron as the material for their cutting tools and weapons. 8 ------------ PAGE 9 ------------ Magadha Empire • Magadha formed one of the sixteen maha- janapadas ( Sanskrit: " Great Countries") of ancient India. • The core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar south of the Ganges; its first capital was Rajagriha ( modern Rajgir), then Pataliputra ( modern Patna). • Western Bangladesh, as part of Magadha, became part of the Indo- Aryan civilization by the 700 BC. 9 ------------ PAGE 10 ------------ Pre Ancient History of Bengal • Mahasthangarh: In 700 BC Urban civilization emerges at Mahasthangarh, Now at Bogra district. • Mahasthangarh is one of the earliest urban archaeological sites discovered in Bangladesh. 10 ------------ PAGE 11 ------------ Ancient History of Bengal 11 ------------ PAGE 12 ------------ Ancient History of Bengal The Independent Kingdom of South – East Bengal 12 ------------ PAGE 13 ------------ 13 ------------ PAGE 14 ------------ Mediaeval History of Bengal 14 ------------ PAGE 15 ------------ Mediaeval History of Bengal: Political Dynamics 15 ------------ PAGE 16 ------------ Mediaeval History of Bengal: Political Dynamics ƒá The Middle age in Bengal coincided with the Muslim rule . ƒá About 550 years of Muslim rule, Bengal was effectively ruled by Delhi- based all India empires for only about two hundred years . For about 350 years Bengal remained virtually independent. ƒá The Muslim rule in Bengal is usually divided into three phases. - The first phase which lasted from 1204 to 1342 witnessed the consolidation of Muslim rule in Bengal. It was characterized by extreme political instability. - The second phase which extended the period 1342 to 1575 saw the emergence of independent local dynasties such as the Ilyas Shahi dynasty, dynasty of King Ganesha and Husain Shahi dynasty. - The third phase which lasted from 1575 to 1757 witnessed the emergence of a centralized administration in Bengal within the framework of the Mughal empire. 16 ------------ PAGE 17 ------------ Rise and Fall of Mughal Empire 17 ------------ PAGE 18 ------------ Causes behind the Downfall of the Mughals 1- Weak Successors of Aurangzeb 2- Absence of the Law of Primogeniture in the Matter of Succession 3- Gradual Deterioration in the character of the Mughal Kings 4- Size of the Mughal Empire Became unwieldy 5- Religious Policy of Aurangzeb 6- Deterioration and Demoralisation in the Mughal Army 7- Neglected the Development of the Navy 8- Lack of initiative in developing modern weapons 9- The Mughal Rule was Alien to the Indian Soil 10- Widespread Corruption in the Administration 11- Invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali 12- Rise of the Marathas 13- the English East India Company 14- Unable to Satisfy by the Minimum Needs of the People 18 ------------ PAGE 19 ------------ Battle Of Palashi ƒá The Conspiracy Against Nawab Siraj- Ud- Daula: ƒæ Tri- parties conspiracy: Relatives, High officials of Nawab’s , East India company ƒæ 23 rd April’ 1757 Calcatta Parishad decided to throw out Nawab. ƒá The Battle: ƒæ June 5, 1757: An agreement between Watts and Mir Jafar. O n 22 June the British army under Lord Clive set out for Palashi. In the meantime the nawab had started from Murshidabad and encamped at Palashi to oppose the enemy. ƒæ The war started at about 8 in the morning on 23 June 1757. ƒæ Nawab's army under Mir Mardan, Mohanlal, Khwaja Abdul Hadi gave a brave fight while Mir Jafar, Yar Latif and Ray Durlabh merely stood by. ƒæ After Mir Mardan's death, Sirajuddaula called Mir Jafar and implored him to save his life. Mir Jafar advised the nawab to suspend action for the day. ƒæ With the nawab's commanders turning back, the British made a onslaught and The battle was over by 5 in the afternoon and victorious Clive immediately proceeded towards Murshidabad. Finally The English won the victory at Palashi. 19 ------------ PAGE 20 ------------ Result of The Battle Nawab’s , vs British army solders: 50,000 solders: 3,000 500 died 23 died and 49 injured # Sirajuddaula fled, captured and killed ( by Muhammadi Beg) # New nawab - Mir Jafar # Rise of the English East India Company 20 ------------ PAGE 21 ------------ Modern History: British Colonial Rule Time Frame: 1757- 1947 ƒá From June 23, 1757 the East India Company of England became the virtual ruler of Bengal and From 1757 they installed their own Nawab. ƒá The Indian Rebellion of 1857 replaced rule by the Company with the direct control of Bengal by the British Crown. 21 ------------ PAGE 22 ------------ Revolt against British Rule ƒæ Fakir Sannyasi Movement: ( 1760- 1800) Leadership: Fakir Majnu Shah, Vabani Pathak, Pargal Shah ƒæ Rangpur Farmers Movement: 1783, Leadership: Nur Uddin ƒæ Balaki Shah Revolt: 1791- 1792 in Bakerganj ƒæ Faraiji Movement: 1820- 1862, I t was widely received in the districts of Dhaka, Faridpur, Barisal, Mymensingh and Comilla Leadership: Haji Shariatullah, Dudu Miyan ƒæ Titumir’s Rebellion in west Bengal in 1831 ƒæ The rebellion of 1857: A large- scale rebellion in northern and central India. It began as a mutiny of sepoys of the East India Company's army. Leadership: Bahadur Shah Zafar, Bakht Khan, Mangal Pandey, Nana Sahib ƒæ Indigo revolt : 1859- 1860 : The Indigo revolt ( or Nilbidroha) was a peasant movement and subsequent uprising of indigo farmers against the indigo planters that arose in Bengal. 22 ------------ PAGE 23 ------------ Revolt against British Rule The rebellion of 1857 Titumir’s Rebellion 23 ------------ PAGE 24 ------------ British Colonial Rule Reformation Movement ƒæ Role of Raja Ram Mohan Rai: Indian Renaissance, Religious Reformation ƒæ Role of Nawab Abdul Latif: Emphasize on education and Established the Mohammedan Literary Society of Calcutta. ƒæ Role of Syed Ameer Ali: Muslim Renaissance ƒæ Syed Ahmad Khan : Literary movement at The Aligarh Muslim University Partition of Bengal: 16 October 1905 It separated the largely Muslim eastern areas from the largely Hindu western areas. Due to political protests, the two parts of Bengal were reunited in 1911. Formation of Muslim League: 1906 The All- India Muslim League formed in December 1906 in Dhaka, attended by 3,000 delegates. Its strong advocacy was for the establishment of separate Muslim- majority nation- states. 24 ------------ PAGE 25 ------------ British Colonial Rule Movements against British Rule ƒæ Swadeshi Movement : 1905 to 1917 Began with and because of the partition of Bengal in 1905. ƒæ The Khilafat movement: ( 1919- 1924) A pan- Islamic political protest campaign by Muslims in British. Leadership: Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Maulana Muhammad Ali ƒæ Non- cooperation movement: 1920 After the Jallianwala Bagh incident, Gandhi started the non- cooperation movement. It was supported by the Indian National Congress also. ƒæ The Quit India Movement: 1942 It was a civil disobedience movement by Gandhi. 25 ------------ PAGE 26 ------------ Modern History: Pakistan Period Time Frame: 1947- 1971 ƒá The Lahore Resolution of 1940 demanded that Muslims are numerically in a majority should be grouped to constitute " Independent States“ . ƒá The power transferred to Pakistan and India on 14 – 15 August 1947 according to " 3 June Plan “ . ƒá Pakistan, was in fact " a double country ", the two wings were not only separated from each other, they were also culturally, economically and socially different. ƒá State Language Movement in 1952: foundation of Bengali Nationalism. ƒá Six Point Program in 1966: It is compared to Magnacarta. ƒá On 26 March 1971, Bangladesh stared journey as a independent country. 26 ------------ PAGE 27 ------------ The Birth of Bangladesh ƒá Military crackdown by the Pakistan army began during the early hours of March 26, 1971. ƒá On 26 March 1971, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman declared that , ‘ Today Bangladesh is a sovereign and independent country. On Thursday night West Pakistani armed forces suddenly attacked the police barracks at Razarbagh and the EPR Headquarters at Pilkhana in Dhaka …… .... May Allah aid us in our fight for freedom. Joy Bangla. ’ ƒá On 27 March 1971, Ziaur Rahman declared that, ‘ I, Major Ziaur Rahman, on behalf of our great leader Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, do hereby declare that the independent Peoples Republic of Bangladesh has been established. …… Victory is ours by the Grace of Allah. Joy Bangla. ƒá On 16 December 1971, Our long cherished victory has acquired . 27 ------------ PAGE 28 ------------ Surrender Of Pakistan Army ------------ PAGE 29 ------------ Political Regime: 1971 to Till 1971 to 1974 : Democratic Regime 1975 to 1975 : One Party Rule 1975 to 1990 : Military Regime 1991 to 2006 : Democratic Regime 2006 to 2008 : Non Democratic Regime 2009 to 2013 : Democratic Regime 2014 to till : Democratic Regime 29 ------------ PAGE 30 ------------ Key Political Person of Bangladesh Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani Abul Kasem Fazlul Huq Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Tajuddin Ahmad Ziaur Rahman 30 ------------ PAGE 31 ------------ References 1. Unfinished Memories, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, UPL, 2012. 2. Bangladesh Revised: A Comprehensive Study of an Asian Nation, Muhamad Ruhul Amin, OSDER Publications, 2010. 3. Banglapeadia, National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. Volume- 1 to 10, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 2003. 4. History of Bangladesh ( 1704- 1947), Edited by Sirajul Islam, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 1992. 5. Bangladesh: Emergence of a Nation, Muhith, A. M. A. Bangladesh Books International, 1978. 6. Bangladesher Itihash, Dr. M. Abdur Rahim, Dr. Abdul Momin Chowdhury, Dr. A. B. M. Mahmood and Dr. Sirajul Islam, Nawroze Kitabistan, Dhaka- 1000. 7. History of Bengal, Majumdar, R, C. ( 1943), Dhaka. 8. The Bangladesh Revolution and its Aftermath, Maniruzzaman, Talukdar, ( UPL), Dhaka. 9. Bangladesh: Itihash Porikroma, Khan Raisuddin K. M, ( 2009), Dhaka. 31
Back to top of page